Notes and Editorial Reviews
This is a hybrid Super Audio CD playable on both regular and Super Audio CD players. The Classical Opera Company
A remarkable discovery. Arne had a winning combination of dramatic flair, virtuoso verve and a nicely gallant style.
When Mozart composed serious operas he set Italian libretti by Metastasio and other well known librettists of
opera seria. His three operas with Da Ponte are not strictly serious operas, they are billed as Opera Buffa/Dramma Giocosa but are supremely genre bending. Metastasian
opera seria had a long life and was the supreme type of serious opera for many composers. So it is not surprising that when Thomas Arne came to write a serious opera for Covent Garden in
1762 he should set a libretto by Metastasio, albeit one translated into English. Metastasio’s
Artaserse was originally written in 1729 and had been set by over ninety composers including Vinci, Gluck and J.C. Bach. Arne used his own translation, something which caused quite a bit of comment at the time but his text seems quite serviceable, albeit with one or two Gilbertian moments.
Artaxerxes was first performed at Covent Garden with Charlotte Brent (Arne’s pupil and mistress) as Mandane, the London-based castrato Ferdinando Tenducci as Arbaces and castrato Nicolo Peretti as Artaxerxes (the title part, but by no means the biggest role). The main tenor role of Artabanes, the villain of the piece, was taken by John Beard who had followed his successful career as a tenor in Handelian opera and oratorio with a new roles as the manager of Covent Garden; Beard would have been 45 at the time the opera was first performed.
Artaxerxes was popular and remained in the Covent Garden repertory until the late 1830s but it then fell out of use (with one notable exception) until Ian Page and the Classical Opera Company revived it last year. The notable exception involved Joan Sutherland who recorded
The soldier, tir’d of war’s alarms on her
Art of the Prima donna set. Anyone who heard that stunning account of the aria must have been puzzled about the opera’s absence from disc. The problem was that in 1808, all the manuscript materials were destroyed in a fire at the Theatre Royal. Arne had published the arias, duets and ensembles (except for the finale), but there was no score of the complete opera. The later 19
th century performances were in a version by Henry Bishop.
Luckily the complete libretto survived, so for the 2009 revival, Page re-composed the recitatives and commissioned Duncan Druce to create a new finale, It is this that has been recorded in the wake of the live performances at Covent Garden.
Artaserse is, frankly, not one of Metastasio’s best libretti. It requires a substantial suspension of disbelief when it comes to the character of the hero, Arbaces. But it was Arbaces’ very nobility which probably was the cause of the opera’s popularity. Eighteenth century audiences liked seeing princes being put through the wringer and displaying a profound nobility of characters in the most trying of unlikely circumstances.
Artaxerxes, Artabanes (Andrew Staples) the general of the King’s forces is plotting against the Persian King Xerxes. Artabanes’ son Arbaces (Caitlin Hulcup) is in love with Xerxes’ daughter Princess Mandane (Elizabeth Watts), and has been banished for his temerity. Before he can leave the palace his father frames Arbaces for his own murder of Xerxes. Things are complicated by the fact that the new King, Artaxerxes, (Christopher Ainslie) is in love with Arbaces’ sister Semira (Rebecca Bottone). Much of the plot revolves around Arbaces nobly insisting that he is innocent but refusing to name the real culprit (his father). The dénouement involves a poisoned cup of wine, intended for Artaxerxes but which is given to Arbaces, prompting his father to confess all.
Within these limits the result is a remarkably fluent and dramatic opera. Arne keeps the pace going so that the entire opera, all three acts of it, lasts a bit over two hours even though it includes some 29 arias, duets and ensembles. Arne’s set-pieces are generally short, but they often require virtuoso skills. They never overstay their welcome.
Caitlin Hulcup is beautifully well modulated as the put-upon Arbaces, complete with a profoundly moving prison scene. It is Arbaces’ love, Mandane that gets the lion’s share of the virtuoso numbers and Elizabeth Watts dispatches these with charming brilliance. She is not quite the equal of Joan Sutherland in
A soldier tir’d but in context makes the piece work brilliantly. Mandane is quite an interesting role as she lurches from loving to hating Arbaces and spends a lot of time being conflicted, thus giving Watts plenty of drama to work with.
Rebecca Bottone as Semira gets her own fair share of drama. Both women are strong characters with dramatic responses to the supposed guilt of Arbaces. If the casting has a weakness it is that the two sopranos have voices which are slightly too close in quality; something which exacerbates the feeling that the two troubled women merge into a single composite character.
Christopher Ainslie as Artaxerxes also has the disadvantage of having to be noble of bearing under pressure, something he does rather well. And his vocal timbre is nicely differentiated from the others.
The most interesting role is Arbanes and you can’t help but listen to Arne’s opera and wonder what Handel would have made of it. Perhaps the fact that the role was originally sung by the veteran tenor John Beard would have brought depth of character to the role. Here Andrew Staples sings admirably, but sounds young; the character fails to dig very deeply, though I am not sure whether this fault should be laid at Staples’ door, or Arne’s. I suspect the latter.
Daniel Norman gives admirable support as Rimenes and gets an aria in which both words and music seem to wander firmly into Gilbert and Sullivan territory!
Ian Page’s recitatives are serviceable without being striking, and they have the virtue of making the drama move on. As this recording came after a series of performances, the cast are all firmly in charge of the drama and the record make rather gripping - and sometimes - thrilling listening. The cast’s diction is uniformly excellent so that, though a complete libretto is provided, you never need to refer to it in order to follow the complexities of the plot. Duncan Druce’s finale concludes things in fine style.
The orchestra provides strong support and despatches Arne’s lively overture with élan. Arne writes for quite a big band, with horns, trumpets and timpani.
The booklet provides an informative background article, plot summary and full English text along with artist biographies and pictures from the 2009 production.
The Classical Opera Company’s 2009 revival of
Artaxerxes was a remarkable discovery and this recording is far more than an interesting record of that event. It demonstrates that Arne had a winning combination of dramatic flair, virtuoso verve and a nicely gallant style. The opera isn’t perfect, but it deserves to be heard and repays repeated listening. Anyone with an interest in 18
th century opera ought to try the disc. They won’t be disappointed.
-- Robert Hugill, MusicWeb International
Works on This Recording
Artaxerxes by Thomas Augustine Arne
Daniel Norman (Tenor),
Rebecca Bottone (Soprano),
Caitlin Hulcup (Mezzo Soprano),
Christopher Ainslie (Countertenor),
Elizabeth Watts (Soprano),
Andrew Staples (Tenor)
Classical Opera Company
Written: 1762/1777; England
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Still Silence Reigns Around
Artaxerxes: Act I: Duet. Fair Aurora, Prithee Stay
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Alas, Thou Know'st That for My Love to Thee
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Adieu, Thou Lovely Youth
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. O Cruel Parting! How Can I Survive?
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Amid a Thousand Racking Woes
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Be Firm, My Heart
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Behold, on Lethe's Dismal Strand
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Stay, , Stay
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Fair Semira, Lovely Maid
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. I Fear Some Dread Disaster
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. When Real Joys We Miss
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Ye Gods, Protectors of the Persian Empire
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. How Hard Is the Fate
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Whither Do I Fly?
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Thy Father! Away, I Renounce the Soft Claim
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Ye Cruel Gods, What Crime Have I Committed
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Acquit Thee of This Foul Offence
Artaxerxes: Act I: Recitative. Appearance, I Must Own, Is Strong Against Me
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. O Too Lovely, Too Unkind
Artaxerxes: Act I: Accompanied Recitative. Dear and Beloved Shade
Artaxerxes: Act I: Air. Fly, Soft Ideas, Fly
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. Guards, Speed Ye to the Tower
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. In Infancy, Our Hopes and Fears
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. So Far My Great Resolve Succeeds
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. Disdainful You Fly Me
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. Why, My Dear Friend, So Pensive, So Inactive?
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. To Sigh and Complain
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. How Many Links to Dire Misfortune's Chain
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. If o'er the Cruel Tyrant Love
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. Which Fatal Evil Shall I First Oppose?
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. If the River's Swelling Waves
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. Ye Solid Pillars of the Persian Empire
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. By That Belov'd Embrace
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. Ah Me, at Poor Arbaces' Parting
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. Monster, Away
Artaxerxes: Act II: Recitative. See, Lov'd Semira
Artaxerxes: Act II: Accompanied Recitative. At Last My Soul Has Room
Artaxerxes: Act II: Air. Thou, Like the Glorious Sun
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. Why Is Death For Ever Late
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. Arbaces! Gracious Heav'n, What's This I See?
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. Water Parted from the Sea
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. That Face, Secure in Conscious Innocence
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. Though Oft a Cloud with Envious Shade
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. My Son, Arbaces... Where Art Thou Retir'd?
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. O Let the Danger of a Son
Artaxerxes: Act III: Accompanied Recitative. Ye Adverse Gods!
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. O, Much Lov'd Son, If Death
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. Perhaps the King Releas'd Arbaces
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. Let Not Rage, Thy Bosom Firing
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. What Have I Done? Alas, I Vainly Thought
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. 'Tis Not True That in Our Grief
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. Nor Here My Searching Eyes Can Find Mandane
Artaxerxes: Act III: Duet. For Thee I Live, My Dearest
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. To You, My People, Much Belov'd
Artaxerxes: Act III: Air. The Soldier, Tir'd of War's Alarms
Artaxerxes: Act III: Recitative. Behold, My King, Arbaces at Thy Feet
Artaxerxes: Act III: Finale. Live to Us, to Empire Live
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