Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Biography

Born: May 7, 1840; Russia   Died: Nov 6, 1893; Russia   Period: Romantic
Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky was the author of some of the most popular themes in all of classical music. He founded no school, struck out no new paths or compositional methods, and sought few innovations in his works. Yet the power and communicative sweep of his best music elevates it to classic status, even if it lacks the formal boldness and harmonic sophistication heard in the compositions of his contemporaries, Wagner and Bruckner. It was Read more Tchaikovsky's unique melodic charm that could, whether in his Piano Concerto No. 1 or in his ballet The Nutcracker or in his tragic last symphony, make the music sound familiar on first hearing.
Tchaikovsky was born into a family of five brothers and one sister. He began taking piano lessons at age four and showed remarkable talent, eventually surpassing his own teacher's abilities. By age nine, he exhibited severe nervous problems, not least because of his overly sensitive nature. The following year, he was sent to St. Petersburg to study at the School of Jurisprudence. The loss of his mother in 1854 dealt a crushing blow to the young Tchaikovsky. In 1859, he took a position in the Ministry of Justice, but longed for a career in music, attending concerts and operas at every opportunity. He finally began study in harmony with Zaremba in 1861, and enrolled at the St. Petersburg Conservatory the following year, eventually studying composition with Anton Rubinstein.
In 1866, the composer relocated to Moscow, accepting a professorship of harmony at the new conservatory, and shortly afterward turned out his First Symphony, suffering, however, a nervous breakdown during its composition. His opera The Voyevoda came in 1867-1868 and he began another, The Oprichnik, in 1870, completing it two years later. Other works were appearing during this time, as well, including the First String Quartet (1871), the Second Symphony (1873), and the ballet Swan Lake (1875).
In 1876, Tchaikovsky traveled to Paris with his brother, Modest, and then visited Bayreuth, where he met Liszt, but was snubbed by Wagner. By 1877, Tchaikovsky was an established composer. This was the year of Swan Lake's premiere and the time he began work on the Fourth Symphony (1877-1878). It was also a time of woe: in July, Tchaikovsky, despite his homosexuality, foolishly married Antonina Ivanovna Milyukova, an obsessed admirer, their disastrous union lasting just months. The composer attempted suicide in the midst of this episode. Near the end of that year, Nadezhda von Meck, a woman he would never meet, became his patron and frequent correspondent.
Further excursions abroad came in the 1880s, along with a spate of successful compositions, including the Serenade for Strings (1881), 1812 Overture (1882), and the Fifth Symphony (1888). In both 1888 and 1889, Tchaikovsky went on successful European tours as a conductor, meeting Brahms, Grieg, Dvorák, Gounod, and other notable musical figures. Sleeping Beauty was premiered in 1890, and The Nutcracker in 1892, both with success.
Throughout Tchaikovsky's last years, he was continually plagued by anxiety and depression. A trip to Paris and the United States followed one dark nervous episode in 1891. Tchaikovsky wrote his Sixth Symphony, "Pathétique," in 1893, and it was successfully premiered in October, that year. The composer died ten days later of cholera, or -- as some now contend -- from drinking poison in accordance with a death sentence conferred on him by his classmates from the School of Jurisprudence, who were fearful of shame on the institution owing to an alleged homosexual episode involving Tchaikovsky. Read less
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No 5… / Thomas, San Francisco
Release Date: 05/12/2015   Label: San Francisco Symphony  
Catalog: 0062   Number of Discs: 1
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Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky: Violin Concertos / Steinbacher, Dutoit
Release Date: 06/09/2015   Label: Pentatone  
Catalog: 5186504   Number of Discs: 1
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Tchaikovsky: Manfred Symphony, Marche Slave / Nelsons, City Of Birmingham
Release Date: 06/09/2015   Label: Orfeo  
Catalog: 895151   Number of Discs: 1
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Tchaikovsky: Ballet Music Highlights / Petrenko, Et Al
Release Date: 12/18/2007   Label: Avie  
Catalog: 2139   Number of Discs: 1
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Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 5 / Yutaka Sado, Deutsches Symphonie Orchestra
Release Date: 04/13/2010   Label: Challenge  
Catalog: 72356   Number of Discs: 1
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Work: Concerto for Piano no 1 in B flat minor, Op. 23

 

Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 1. Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso - Allegro con spirito
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 2. Andantino semplice - Prestissimo - Tempo I
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 3. Allegro con fuoco
About This Work
Although Tchaikovsky was already an accomplished composer (having already produced his first two symphonies, a string quartet, and two notable tone poems, all of these successful and enduring works), he still sought the approval of mentors such as Read more Balakirev and Nicolas Rubinstein. On Christmas Eve 1874 he played the concerto for Rubinstein (its intended soloist) in an empty classroom. Rubinstein responded with a torrent of castigation, made famous by Tchaikovsky's own recollection. Tchaikovsky slunk off in despair. Later Rubinstein called him back and detailed a list of changes that must be made by a certain date if Rubinstein were to perform it. Tchaikovsky wrote that he responded, "I shall not change a single note, and I shall publish the concerto as it is now." He continued in his reminiscence, "And this, indeed, I did." Well, not entirely. Although there are no really substantial changes, he did subject the concerto to some minor revision before it was printed, as happens with most compositions. The premiere fell to Hans von Bülow, who played it first in Boston, October 15, 1875. The audience was enraptured and demanded a repeat of the entire final movement. Von Bülow took the concerto back to Europe, where it was quickly added to the repertoire of other leading pianists; even Rubinstein started playing it in 1878. It has been a giant success, virtually the epitome of the romantic piano concerto, ever since.

The form of the concerto is lopsided: possessing a notably large scale introduction, the broad melodies of the first movement run its length out to nearly 25 minutes, more than the length of the two remaining movements combined. Its arresting opening horn call, with bold orchestral chords interrupting, leads immediately to one of the most recognizable and beloved of classical melodies, played by strings with rich harmonic support from the piano solo. Tchaikovsky initiates a great formal surprise by going straightway into a full-fledged cadenza for the piano solo, a powerful treatment of the theme. The strings then reassert the melody in its original form -- and all this is only the introduction to the first movement proper. A lengthy introduction to be sure (106 measures), but once it ends, that's the last time in the concerto this music is used in any way. The movement proper is a full-scale sonata-allegro treatment of two themes, one reputedly a Ukrainian folk theme, the other a gentle romantic theme. There is great drama and passion in its working out; when it is all over one realizes that there is also a minimum (for Tchaikovsky) of angst and pathos.

The second movement is tender, beginning with pizzicato chords so quiet as to be almost whispers. A flute melody of young adolescent tenderness is the main theme of the movement. There is a central section with a delicate waltz.

The finale opens with a rushing string figure and a powerful drum stroke. The main theme is an arresting, galloping dance made up of many short phrases. Yet another romantic theme provides contrast.

-- Joseph Stevenson
Read less

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Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky


WORKS
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 1. Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso - Allegro con spirito
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 2. Andantino semplice - Prestissimo - Tempo I
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No.1 In B Flat Minor, Op.23 - 3. Allegro con fuoco
Allegro moderato
Canzonetta: Andante
Allegro vivacissimo
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - 1. Miniature Overture
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - March
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - Dance Of The Sugar-Plum Fairy
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - Russian Dance (Trepak)
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - Arabian Dance (Coffee)
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - Chinese Dance (Tea)
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - Dance Of The Reed-Pipes (Merlitons)
Tchaikovsky: Nutcracker Suite, Op.71a - 3. Waltz Of The Flowers
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No.5 In E Minor, Op.64 - 1. Andante - Allegro con anima
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No.5 In E Minor, Op.64 - 2. Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza - Moderato con anima
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No.5 In E Minor, Op.64 - 3. Valse (Allegro moderato)
Tchaikovsky: Symphony No.5 In E Minor, Op.64 - 4. Finale (Andante maestoso - Allegro vivace)
I. Adagio - Allegro non troppo
II. Allegro con grazia
III. Allegro molto vivace
IV. Adagio lamentoso
Moderato assai quasi andante
Tema: Moderato semplice
Variazione I: Tempo del Tema
Variazione II: Tempo del Tema
Variazione III: Andante sostenuto
Variazione IV: Andante grazioso
Variazione V: Allegro moderato
Variazione VI: Andante
Variazione VII e Coda: Allegro vivo
1. Pezzo in forma di sonatina: Andante non troppo - Allegro moderato
2. Walzer: Moderato (Tempo di valse)
3. Elégie: Larghetto elegiaco
4. Finale (Tema russo): Andante - Allegro con spirito
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 1. Scene - Swan Theme
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 2. Valse In A
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 3. Danse des petits cygnes
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 4. Scene
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 5. Danse Hongroise (Czardas)
Tchaikovsky: Swan Lake, Op.20 Suite - 6. Scène finale.
Tchaikovsky: The Sleeping Beauty, Suite, Op.66a - Introduction - The Lilac Fairy
Tchaikovsky: The Sleeping Beauty, Suite, Op.66a - Pas d'action: Rose Adagio
Tchaikovsky: The Sleeping Beauty, Suite, Op.66a - Pas de caractère: Puss In Boots
Tchaikovsky: The Sleeping Beauty, Suite, Op.66a - Panorama (andantino)
Tchaikovsky: The Sleeping Beauty, Suite, Op.66a - Valse


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