Claude Debussy

Biography

Born: 1862   Died: 1918   Country: France   Period: Romantic
Claude Debussy (born Achille-Claude Debussy) was among the most influential composers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His mature compositions, distinctive and appealing, combined modernism and sensuality so successfully that their sheer beauty often obscures their technical innovation. Debussy is considered the founder and leading exponent of musical Impressionism (although he resisted the label), and his adoption of Read more non-traditional scales and tonal structures was paradigmatic for many composers who followed.
The son of a shopkeeper and a seamstress, Debussy began piano studies at the Paris Conservatory at the age of 11. While a student there, he encountered the wealthy Nadezhda von Meck (most famous as Tchaikovsky's patroness), who employed him as a music teacher to her children; through travel, concerts and acquaintances, she provided him with a wealth of musical experience. Most importantly, she exposed the young Debussy to the works of Russian composers, such as Borodin and Mussorgsky, who would remain important influences on his music.
Debussy began composition studies in 1880, and in 1884 he won the prestigious Prix de Rome with his cantata L'enfant prodigue. This prize financed two years of further study in Rome -- years that proved to be creatively frustrating. However, the period immediately following was fertile for the young composer; trips to Bayreuth and the Paris World Exhibition (1889) established, respectively, his determination to move away from the influence of Richard Wagner, and his interest in the music of Eastern cultures.
After a relatively bohemian period, during which Debussy formed friendships with many leading Parisian writers and musicians (not least of which were Mallarmé, Satie, and Chausson), the year 1894 saw the enormously successful premiere of his Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun) -- a truly revolutionary work that brought his mature compositional voice into focus. His seminal opera Pelléas et Mélisande, completed the next year, would become a sensation at its first performance in 1902. The impact of those two works earned Debussy widespread recognition (as well as frequent attacks from critics, who failed to appreciate his forward-looking style), and over the first decade of the twentieth century he established himself as the leading figure in French music -- so much so that the term "Debussysme" ("Debussyism"), used both positively and pejoratively, became fashionable in Paris. Debussy spent his remaining healthy years immersed in French musical society, writing as a critic, composing, and performing his own works internationally. He succumbed to colon cancer in 1918, having also suffered a deep depression brought on by the onset of World War I.
Debussy's personal life was punctuated by unfortunate incidents, most famously the attempted suicide of his first wife, Lilly Texier, whom he abandoned for the singer Emma Bardac. However, his subsequent marriage to Bardac, and their daughter Claude-Emma, whom they called "Chouchou" and who became the dedicatee of the composer's Children's Corner piano suite, provided the middle-aged Debussy with great personal joys.
Debussy wrote successfully in most every genre, adapting his distinctive compositional language to the demands of each. His orchestral works, of which Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune and La mer (The Sea, 1905) are most familiar, established him as a master of instrumental color and texture. It is this attention to tone color -- his layering of sound upon sound so that they blend to form a greater, evocative whole -- that linked Debussy in the public mind to the Impressionist painters.
His works for solo piano, particularly his collections of Préludes and Etudes, which have remained staples of the repertoire since their composition, bring into relief his assimilation of elements from both Eastern cultures and antiquity -- especially pentatonicism (the use of five-note scales), modality (the use of scales from ancient Greece and the medieval church), parallelism (the parallel movement of chords and lines), and the whole-tone scale (formed by dividing the octave into six equal intervals).
Pelléas et Mélisande and his collections of songs for solo voice establish the strength of his connection to French literature and poetry, especially the symbolist writers, and stand as some of the most understatedly expressive works in the repertory. The writings of Mallarmé, Maeterlinck, Baudelaire, and his childhood friend Paul Verlaine appear prominently among his chosen texts and joined symbiotically with the composer's own unique moods and forms of expression. Read less
Debussy: La Mer, Jeux, Prelude a l'apres midi d'un faune / Gergiev, LSO
Release Date: 04/12/2011   Label: Lso Live  
Catalog: 692   Number of Discs: 1
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Debussy: The Edgar Allan Poe Operas / Mueller, Gottinger Symphonie
Release Date: 06/24/2016   Label: Pan Classics  
Catalog: 10342   Number of Discs: 2
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Strauss, Faure, Debussy, Poulenc, Wolf & Berg: Songs / Christiane Karg
Release Date: 09/24/2013   Label: Wigmore Hall Live  
Catalog: 62   Number of Discs: 1
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Debussy, Faure & Ravel: Works for Piano & Orchestra / Tryon, Van Steen, Royal Philharmonic
Release Date: 09/01/2015   Label: Somm  
Catalog: 258   Number of Discs: 1
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Work: Préludes, Book 1: no 8, La fille aux cheveux de lin

Browse 201-210 of 210 Available Recordings
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  • 201.
    Leonidas Kavacos Plays Debussy, Kreisler, Paganini, Etc
    Label: Delos   Catalog: 3116 Release Date: 12/11/1992   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst,  Fritz Kreisler,  Henri Wieniawski,  Claude Debussy  ... 
    Performer:  Péter Nagy,  Leonidas Kavakos
    CD: $17.99
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  • 202.
    The World Of The  Harp / Susann Mcdonald
    Label: Delos   Catalog: 3005 Release Date: 12/11/1992   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Elias Parish Alvars,  Marcel Grandjany,  Albert Zabel,  Marcel Tournier  ... 
    Performer:  Susann McDonald
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  • 203.
    Debussy: Solo Piano Music Vol 1 / Peter Frankl
    Label: Vox Box   Catalog: 5062 Release Date: 11/04/1992   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Claude Debussy
    Performer:  Peter Frankl
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  • 204.
    French Music For Clarinet And Piano / De Peyer, Pryor
    Label: Chandos   Catalog: 8526 Release Date: 10/28/1992   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Gabriel Pierné,  Claude Debussy,  Maurice Ravel,  Florent Schmitt  ... 
    Performer:  Gwenneth Pryor,  Gervase de Peyer
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  • 205.
    Piano Collection / Arrau, Pollini, Richter, Gelber Et Al
    Label: Emi Classics   Catalog: 67205 Release Date: 09/29/1992   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Scott Joplin,  Modest Mussorgsky,  Sergei Rachmaninov,  Isaac Albeniz  ... 
    Performer:  Marielle Labèque,  Katia Labèque,  Michel Béroff,  Jean-Philippe Collard  ... 
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  • 206.
    The World's Most Beautiful Melodies / Phillip Mccann
    Label: Chandos   Catalog: 4501 Release Date: 07/29/1992   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Arthur Sullivan,  Franz Schubert,  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,  Giacomo Puccini  ... 
    Performer:  Iain Robertson,  Phillip McCann
    Conductor:  Major Peter Parkes
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Black Dyke Mills Band
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  • 207.
    Romantic Brass - Music Of France And Spain / Empire Brass
    Label: Telarc   Catalog: 80301 Release Date: 01/28/1992   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Joaquin Turina,  Claude Debussy,  Maurice Ravel,  Isaac Albeniz  ... 
    Performer:  Richard Jensen,  Edward Flower
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Empire Brass
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  • 208.
    Van Cliburn - My Favorite Encores
    Label: Rca Victor Gold Seal   Catalog: 60726 Release Date: 05/10/1991   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Frédéric Chopin,  Sergei Rachmaninov,  Alexander Scriabin,  Franz Liszt  ... 
    Performer:  Van Cliburn
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  • 209.
    Encores / Itzhak Perlman, Samuel Sanders
    Label: Emi Classics   Catalog: 49514 Release Date: 10/25/1990   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Flausino R. do Vale,  Pablo de Sarasate,  Henri Wieniawski,  Giuseppe Tartini  ... 
    Performer:  Samuel Sanders,  Itzhak Perlman
    ArkivCD $16.99
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  • 210.
    James Galway - Serenade
    Label: Rca Victor Red Seal   Catalog: 60033 Release Date: 06/28/1989   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Claude Debussy,  Riccardo Drigo,  Gabriel Fauré,  Sergei Rachmaninov  ... 
    Performer:  James Galway,  Marisa Robles,  Ayako Shinozaki,  Kazuhito Yamashita  ... 
    Conductor:  James Galway,  Charles Gerhardt,  Charles Dutoit,  Hiroyuki Iwaki  ... 
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Chamber Orchestra of Europe,  National Philharmonic Orchestra,  Royal Philharmonic Orchestra  ... 
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