John Butt

Biography

Born: November 17, 1960; Solihull, West Midlands  
John Butt is a prominent English keyboard player and conductor, who has focused largely on music of the Baroque period. He is also a pedagogue and widely considered an authority on the music of J.S. Bach and its performance, as well as on German Baroque music in general. He has authored several books on these subjects including Bach Interpretation and Music Education and the Art of Performance in the German Baroque, both issued by Cambridge Read more University Press.

John Butt was born in Solihull, England in 1960. In 1979 he enrolled at King's College, Cambridge University, where as an undergraduate he attained the post of organ scholar. Among his teachers were Gillian Weir and Peter Hurford. Butt went on to earn a Doctorate degree in 1987 from Cambridge, having devoted much study to the music of J.S. Bach. In 1989 he joined the faculty at the University of California at Berkely, where he also served as University Organist. Two years later he assumed additional duties there when he took on directorship of the University's Chamber Chorus. By the early 1990s Butt's first recordings were appearing on the Harmonia Mundi label, among which were Orlando Gibbons -- Tudor Church Music (1990), where he served as organist; and Bach Violin Sonatas (1993), where he partnered violinist Elizabeth Blumenstock on the harpsichord. During this period he also developed a relationship with the Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra and its director, Nicholas McGegan, both in concert and the recording studio.



1997 was a pivotal year for John Butt: he returned to Cambridge University to serve as a lecturer and fellow at King's College. He also founded a mixed choir there, largely for performances and services at the Chapel. His concert schedule in England and United States increased that year as well, Butt giving memorable readings of Handel Organ Concertos with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra and St. Paul Chamber Orchestra. Butt's recordings soon became more frequent and garnered much attention: Kuhnau's Biblical Sonatas (1999) and Bach's Trio Sonatas, BWV 525-30 (2001), for Harmonia Mundi, were both well received, as was his album, Elgar, the Complete Organ Works (2002). Butt has continued his activity as a teacher and performing artist in the new century, and as an author too: his 2003 book, Playing With History, examines historic performance practices. Read less
Browse 1-20 of 20 Available Recordings
  • 1.
    Bach: Das Wohltemperierte Klavier
    Label: Linn Records   Catalog: 463 Release Date: 11/11/2014   Number of Discs: 4
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  John Butt
    CD: $48.99
    In Stock
    MP3 Available
    CD:  $48.99 Add CD to Cart

    MP3:  $39.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 2.
    Bach: Brandenburg Concertos / Butt, Dunedin Consort
    Label: Linn Records   Catalog: 430 Release Date: 09/24/2013   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  John Butt
    Conductor:  John Butt
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Dunedin Consort
    SuperAudio CD: $34.99
    In Stock
    MP3 Available
    SuperAudio CD:  $34.99 Add to Cart

    MP3:  $19.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 3.
    Bach: John Passion / Butt, Dunedin Consort
    Label: Linn Records   Catalog: 419 Release Date: 03/26/2013   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach,  Dietrich Buxtehude,  Jacob Handl,  Johann Hermann Schein
    Performer:  John Butt,  Joanne Lunn,  Nicholas Mulroy,  Matthew Brook  ... 
    Conductor:  John Butt
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Dunedin Consort
    Recommendation
    SuperAudio CD: $34.99
    In Stock
    MP3 Available
    SuperAudio CD:  $34.99 Add to Cart

    MP3:  $19.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 4.
    Faure: Requiem; Pavane; Durufle: Requiem
    Label: Warner Classics   Catalog: 23082 Release Date: 09/11/2012   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Gabriel Fauré,  Maurice Duruflé
    Performer:  John Wells,  Gareth Morris,  John Butt
    Conductor:  Sir David Willcocks,  Philip Ledger
    CD: $12.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $12.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 5.
    Lumieres - Music Of The Enlightenment [30-CD Set]
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 2908601 Release Date: 10/01/2011   Number of Discs: 30
    Composer:  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,  Christoph W. Gluck,  Jean-Philippe Rameau,  George Frideric Handel  ... 
    Performer:  Kobie van Rensburg,  Véronique Gens,  Patrizia Ciofi,  Marie McLaughlin  ... 
    Conductor:  René Jacobs,  William Christie,  Daniel Reuss,  Philippe Herreweghe  ... 
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Concerto Cologne,  Cologne Collegium Vocale,  Berlin RIAS Chamber Chorus  ... 
    Recommendation
    On sale! $74.98
    CD: $62.99
    In Stock
    On sale!   $74.98   CD:  $62.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 6.
    The Very Best Of Janet Baker
    Label: Emi Classics   Catalog: 94717 Release Date: 07/26/2011   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  George Frideric Handel,  Felix Mendelssohn,  Johannes Brahms,  Maurice Duruflé  ... 
    Performer:  Dame Janet Baker,  Timothy Hugh,  John Butt,  Gerald Moore  ... 
    Conductor:  Sir Charles Mackerras,  Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos,  Sir Adrian Boult,  Philip Ledger  ... 
    CD: $17.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $17.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 7.
    Fauré, Duruflé: Requiems, Etc / Willcocks, Ledger, Et Al
    Label: Emi Great Recordings Of The Century   Catalog: 79989 Release Date: 03/06/2007   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Gabriel Fauré,  Maurice Duruflé
    Performer:  Gareth Morris,  Robert Chilcott,  John Carol Case,  John [classical organ] Wells  ... 
    Conductor:  Sir David Willcocks,  Sir Philip Ledger
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  New Philharmonia Orchestra,  Cambridge King's College Choir
    Recommendation
    CD: $12.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $12.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 8.
    Fauré: Requiem, Messe Basse;  Poulenc, Duruflé / Philip Ledger, Et Al
    Label: Emi Classics For Pleasure   Catalog: 75906 Release Date: 01/23/2007   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Gabriel Fauré,  Maurice Duruflé,  Francis Poulenc
    Performer:  John Butt,  Paul Smy
    Conductor:  Sir Philip Ledger,  Martin Neary
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  English Chamber Orchestra,  Cambridge King's College Choir,  Winchester Cathedral Choir
    Recommendation
    CD: $7.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $7.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 9.
    Bach: Brandenburg Concertos, Vol. 2
    Label: American Bach Soloists   Catalog: 5637204461 Release Date: 01/01/2007   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  Jeffrey [Tenor Vocals/Conductor] Thomas,  Jonathan Dimmock,  John Butt,  Phebe Craig
    Conductor:  Jeffrey Thomas
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  American Bach Soloists
    CD: $19.99
    Low Stock
    CD:  $19.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 10.
    Organs In Glasgow / John Kitchen, John Butt
    Label: Delphian   Catalog: 34032 Release Date: 07/25/2006   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Felix Mendelssohn,  Francis Jackson,  Kenneth Leighton,  Henry Thomas Smart  ... 
    Performer:  John Kitchen,  John Butt
    On sale! $21.98
    CD: $19.99
    In Stock
    On sale!   $21.98   CD:  $19.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 11.
    Handel: Messiah / Dunedin Consort
    Label: Linn Records   Catalog: 285 Release Date: 01/01/2006   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  George Frideric Handel
    Performer:  Annie Gill,  Matthew Brook,  Edward Caswell,  Susan Hamilton  ... 
    Conductor:  John Butt
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Dunedin Players,  Dunedin Consort
    Recommendation
    SuperAudio CD: $34.99
    In Stock
    MP3 Available
    SuperAudio CD:  $34.99 Add to Cart

    MP3:  $19.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 12.
    1+1  Bach: Violin Sonatas / Elizabeth Blumenstock, John Butt
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 2907364 Release Date: 08/09/2005   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  Elizabeth Blumenstock,  John Butt,  Elisabeth Le Guin,  Steven Lehning
    CD not available
    MP3 Available
    MP3:  $13.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 13.
    Bach: Violin Sonatas Vol 1 / Elizabeth Blumenstock, John Butt
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 3957084 Release Date: 04/09/2002   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  John Butt,  Elizabeth Blumenstock
    Recommendation
    CD: $7.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $7.99 Add CD to Cart

  • 14.
    The Very Best Of Janet Baker
    Label: Emi Classics   Catalog: 75069 Release Date: 04/09/2002   Number of Discs: 2
    Composer:  Richard Strauss,  Johannes Brahms,  Robert Schumann,  Felix Mendelssohn  ... 
    Performer:  Gerald Moore,  Dame Janet Baker,  Cecil Aronowitz,  André Previn  ... 
    Conductor:  Sir John Barbirolli,  Sir Philip Ledger,  André Previn,  Sir Adrian Boult  ... 
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Hallé Orchestra Chorus,  Hallé Orchestra,  Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus  ... 
    CD not available
    MP3 Available
    MP3:  $11.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 15.
    Bach: Organ Music / John Butt
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 3957055 Release Date: 03/12/2002   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  John Butt
    ArkivCD $16.99
    Low Stock
    MP3 Available
    ArkivCD:  $16.99 Add to Cart

    MP3:  $7.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 16.
    Elgar: Complete Works For Organ / John Butt
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 907281 Release Date: 02/12/2002   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Sir Edward Elgar
    Performer:  John Butt
    CD not available
    MP3 Available
    MP3:  $7.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 17.
    Bach: Four Toccatas & Fugues, Schübler Chorales / John Butt
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 907249 Release Date: 11/14/2000   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Johann Sebastian Bach
    Performer:  John Butt
    Recommendation
    CD not available
    MP3 Available
    MP3:  $9.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 18.
    Anthems And Instrumental Works By Orlando Gibbons / Butt
    Label: Centaur Records   Catalog: 2308 Release Date: 03/18/1997   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Orlando Gibbons
    Performer:  Jeffrey Thomas,  John Butt,  Julie Comparini,  Erica Barton  ... 
    Conductor:  John Butt
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Berkeley Chamber Chorus,  Berkeley Festival Consort of Viols
    CD: $17.99
    In Stock
    MP3 Available
    CD:  $17.99 Add CD to Cart

    MP3:  $9.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 19.
    Purcell: Dido & Aeneas / Mcgegan, Hunt, Saffer, Elliott
    Label: Harmonia Mundi   Catalog: 907110 Release Date: 09/27/1994   Number of Discs: 1
    Composer:  Henry Purcell
    Performer:  Paul Elliott,  Lisa Saffer,  Lorraine Hunt Lieberson,  Donna Deam  ... 
    Conductor:  Nicholas McGegan
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra,  Clare College Choir
    CD not available
    MP3 Available
    MP3:  $9.99 Add MP3 to Cart

  • 20.
    100 Best Adagio Voices
    Label: Emi Classics   Catalog: 64292 Release Date: 09/22/0009   Number of Discs: 6
    Composer:  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,  Johann Sebastian Bach,  George Frideric Handel,  Giovanni Battista Pergolesi  ... 
    Performer:  Natalie Dessay,  Philippe Jaroussky,  Toby Spence,  Barbara Hendricks  ... 
    Conductor:  Louis Langrée,  Emmanuelle Haïm,  Sir Neville Marriner,  Andrew Parrott  ... 
    Orchestra/Ensemble:  Le Concert D'Astrée,  Academy of St. Martin in the Fields,  Taverner Players  ... 
    CD: $19.99
    In Stock
    CD:  $19.99 Add CD to Cart

Biography

Born: November 17, 1960; Solihull, West Midlands  
John Butt is a prominent English keyboard player and conductor, who has focused largely on music of the Baroque period. He is also a pedagogue and widely considered an authority on the music of J.S. Bach and its performance, as well as on German Baroque music in general. He has authored several books on these subjects including Bach Interpretation and Music Education and the Art of Performance in the German Baroque, both issued by Cambridge Read more
WORKS ALBUMS
TITLE/COMPOSER
LABEL
Prelude No. 1 in C Major, BWV 846
Fugue No. 1 in C Major, BWV 846
Prelude No. 2 in C Minor, BWV 847
Fugue No. 2 in C Minor, BWV 847
Fugue No. 3 in C-Sharp Major, BWV 848
Prelude No. 3 in C-Sharp Major, BWV 848
Fugue No. 4 in C-Sharp Minor, BWV 849
Prelude No. 4 in C-Sharp Minor, BWV 849
Prelude No. 5 in D Major, BWV 850
Fugue No. 5 in D Major, BWV 850
Prelude No. 6 in D Minor, BWV 851
Fugue No. 6 in D Minor, BWV 851
Prelude No. 7 in E-Flat Major, BWV 852
Fugue No. 7 in E-Flat Major, BWV 852
Prelude No. 8 in E-Flat Minor, BWV 853
Fugue No. 8 in D-Sharp Minor, BWV 853
Prelude No. 9 in E Major, BWV 854
Fugue No. 9 in E Major, BWV 854
Prelude No. 10 in E Minor, BWV 855
Fugue No. 10 in E Minor, BWV 855
Prelude No. 11 in F Major, BWV 856
Fugue No. 11 in F Major, BWV 856
Prelude No. 12 in F Minor, BWV 857
Fugue No. 12 in F Minor, BWV 857
Prelude No. 13 in F-Sharp Major, BWV 858
Fugue No. 13 in F-Sharp Major, BWV 858
Prelude No. 14 in F-Sharp Minor, BWV 859
Fugue No. 14 in F-Sharp Minor, BWV 859
Prelude No. 15 in G Major, BWV 860
Fugue No. 15 in G Major, BWV 860
Prelude No. 16 in G Minor, BWV 861
Fugue No. 16 in G Minor, BWV 861
Prelude No. 17 in A-Flat Major, BWV 862
Fugue No. 17 in A-Flat Major, BWV 862
Prelude No. 18 in G-Sharp Minor, BWV 863
Fugue No. 18 in G-Sharp Minor, BWV 863
Prelude No. 19 in A Major, BWV 864
Fugue No. 19 in A Major, BWV 864
Prelude No. 20 in A Minor, BWV 865
Fugue No. 20 in A Minor, BWV 865
Prelude No. 21 in B-Flat Major, BWV 866
Fugue No. 21 in B-Flat Major, BWV 866
Prelude No. 22 in B-Flat Minor, BWV 867
Fugue No. 22 in B-Flat Minor, BWV 867
Prelude No. 23 in B Major, BWV 868
Fugue No. 23 in B Major, BWV 868
Prelude No. 24 in B Minor, BWV 869
Fugue No. 24 in B Minor, BWV 869
Prelude No. 1 in C Major, BWV 870
Fugue No. 1 in C Major, BWV 870
Prelude No. 2 in C Minor, BWV 871
Fugue No. 2 in C Minor, BWV 871
Prelude No. 3 in C-Sharp Major, BWV 872
Fugue No. 3 in C-Sharp Major, BWV 872
Prelude No. 4 in C-Sharp Minor, BWV 873
Fugue No. 4 in C-Sharp Minor, BWV 873
Prelude No. 5 in D Major, BWV 874
Fugue No. 5 in D Major, BWV 874
Prelude No. 6 in D Minor, BWV 875
Fugue No. 6 in D Minor, BWV 875
Prelude No. 7 in E-Flat Major, BWV 876
Fugue No. 7 in E-Flat Major, BWV 876
Prelude No. 8 in D-Sharp Minor, BWV 877
Fugue No. 8 in D-Sharp Minor, BWV 877
Prelude No. 9 in E Major, BWV 878
Fugue No. 9 in E Major, BWV 878
Prelude No. 10 in E Minor, BWV 879
Fugue No. 10 in E Minor, BWV 879
Prelude No. 11 in F Major, BWV 880
Fugue No. 11 in F Major, BWV 880
Prelude No. 12 in F Minor, BWV 881
Fugue No. 12 in F Minor, BWV 881
Prelude No. 13 in F-Sharp Major, BWV 882
Fugue No. 13 in F-Sharp Major, BWV 882
Prelude No. 14 in F-Sharp Minor, BWV 883
Fugue No. 14 in F-Sharp Minor, BWV 883
Prelude No. 15 in G Major, BWV 884
Fugue No. 15 in G Major, BWV 884
Prelude No. 16 in G Minor, BWV 885
Fugue No. 16 in G Minor, BWV 885
Prelude No. 17 in A-Flat Major, BWV 886
Fugue No. 17 in A-Flat Major, BWV 886
Prelude No. 18 in G-Sharp Minor, BWV 887
Fugue No. 18 in G-Sharp Minor, BWV 887
Prelude No. 19 in A Major, BWV 888
Fugue No. 19 in A Major, BWV 888
Prelude No. 20 in A Minor, BWV 889
Fugue No. 20 in A Minor, BWV 889
Prelude No. 21 in B-Flat Major, BWV 890
Fugue No. 21 in B-Flat Major, BWV 890
Prelude No. 22 in B-Flat Minor, BWV 891
Fugue No. 22 in B-Flat Minor, BWV 891
Prelude No. 23 in B Major, BWV 892
Fugue No. 23 in B Major, BWV 892
Prelude No. 24 in B Minor, BWV 893
Fugue No. 24 in B Minor, BWV 893
I. -
II. Adagio
III. Allegro
IV. Minuet
I. (Allegro)
II. Andante
III. Allegro assai
I. (Allegro)
II. Adagio
III. Allegro
I. Allegro
II. Andante
III. Presto
I. Allegro
II. Affettuoso
III. Allegro
I. -
II. Adagio ma non tanto
III. Allegro
Part I: Chorale: Herr, unser Herrscher (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Jesus ging mit seinen Jungern (Evangelist)
Part I: Chorale: Jesum von Nazareth (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Jesus spricht zu ihnen (Evangelist, Jesus)
Part I: Chorale: Jesum von Nazareth! (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Jesus antwortete (Evangelist, Jesus)
Part I: Chorale: O grosse Lieb (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Auf dass das Wort erfullet wurde (Evangelist, Jesus)
Part I: Chorale: Dein Will gescheh, Herr Gott, zugleich (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Die Schar aber und der Oberhauptmann (Evangelist)
Part I: Aria: Von den Strikken meiner Sunden (Alto)
Part I: Recitative: Simon Petrus aber folgete Jesu nach (Evangelist)
Part I: Aria: Ich folge dir gleichfalls (Soprano)
Part I: Recitative: Derselbige Junger war (Evangelist)
Part I: Chorale: Wer hat dich so geschlagen (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Und Hannas sandte ihn gebunden (Evangelist)
Part I: Chorale: Bist du nicht seiner Junger einer (Chorus)
Part I: Recitative: Er leugnete und sprach (Evangelist, Petrus)
Part I: Aria: Ach, mein Sinn (Tenor)
Part I: Chorale: Petrus, der nicht denkt zuruck (Chorus)
Part II: Chorale: Christus, der uns selig macht (Chorus)
Part II: Recitative: Da fuhreten sie Jesum (Evangelist, Pilatus)
Part II: Chorale: Ware dieser nicht ein Ubeltater (Chorus)
Part II: Recitative: Da sprach Pilatus zu ihm (Evangelist, Pilatus)
Part II: Chorale: Wir durfen niemand toten (Chorus)
Part II: Recitative: Auf dass erfullet wurde das Wort Jesu (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus)
Part II: Chorale: Ach grosser Konig (Chorus)
Part II: Recitative: Da sprach Pilatus zu ihm (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus)
Part II: Chorale: Nicht diesen, diesen nicht (Chorus)
Part II: Recitative: Barrabas aber war ein Morder (Evangelist)
Part II: Arioso: Betrachte, meine Seel (Bass)
Part II: Aria: Erwage, wie sein blutgefarbter Rucken (Tenor)
Collect [Vollstandiges Kirchen-Buch, Leipzig, 1731]
Blessing [Vollstandiges Kirchen-Buch, Leipzig, 1731]
Response:
Nun danket alle Gott, BWV 657
Nun danket alle Gott, BWV 657
Nun danket alle Gott
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Introit
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Kyrie
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Domine Jesu Christe
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Sanctus
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Pie Jesu
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Agnus Dei
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Lux aeterna
Requiem, Op.9 (version with organ) (2007 - Remaster): Libera me
Requiem Op. 9 (version with organ) (2007 Digital Remaster): In paradisum
Requiem, Op.48: I. Introït et Kyrie
Requiem, Op.48: II. Offertoire (chorus & baritone)
Requiem, Op.48: III. Sanctus
Requiem, Op.48: IV. Pie Jesu (soprano solo)
Requiem, Op.48: V. Agnus Dei
Requiem, Op.48: VI. Libera me (baritone & chorus)
Requiem, Op.48: VII. In Paradisum
Messe basse: Kyrie eleison [with treble solo]
Messe basse: Sanctus
Messe basse: Benedictus [with treble solo]
Messe basse: Agnus Dei
Part I: Grave - Allegro moderato
Part I: Comfort ye my people (Tenor)
Part I: Ev'ry valley shall be exalted (Tenor)
Part I: And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed (Chorus)
Part I: Thus saith the Lord of Hosts (Bass)
Part I: But who may abide the day of His coming (Bass)
Part I: And He shall purify (Chorus)
Part I: Behold, a virgin shall conceive (Alto)
Part I: O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion (Alto)
Part I: O thou that tellest (Chorus)
Part I: For behold, darkness shall cover the earth (Bass)
Part I: The people that walked in darkness (Bass)
Part I: For unto us a child is born (Chorus)
Part I: Pifa (Pastoral Symphony)
Part I: There were shepherds (Soprano)
Part I: And lo, the Angel of the Lord (Soprano)
Part I: And the angel said unto them (Soprano)
Part I: And suddenly there was with the angel (Soprano)
Part I: Glory to God in the highest (Chorus)
Part I: Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion (Soprano)
Part I: Then shall the eyes of the blind be open'd (Soprano)
Part I: He shall feed His flock like a shepherd (Soprano)
Part I: His yoke is easy, his burthen is light (Chorus)
Part II: Behold, The Lamb of God (Chorus)
Part II: He was despised (Alto)
Part II: Surely, He hath borne our griefs (Chorus)
Part II: And with His stripes we are healed (Chorus)
Part II: All we like sheep have gone astray (Chorus)
Part II: But who may abide