Notes and Editorial Reviews
Deluxe Limited-Edition CD release - includes the DVD documentary
To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the première of West Side Story,* Deutsche Grammophon has prepared this deluxe limited edition of its memorable 1984 recording of the musical under the baton of Bernstein himself, with Dame Kiri Te Kanawa and José Carreras in the leading roles, together with the DVD of 'The Making of West Side Story.' The latter uniquely documents the production's genesis, ups-and-downs, triumphs and tribulations. This is the first time both these discs have been released as a set.
In the 104-page hardcover book accompanying the recording and film, original and new articles present both the history and a
critical evaluation of Bernstein's masterpiece. For this special edition, Bernstein's daughter Nina has written an affectionate reminiscence of her part in the 1984 production, when she and brother Alexander took on the dialogue roles of Maria and Tony under the critical eye of their father. In addition, a new article charts the tempestuous evolution of the musical in the year of its première, largely through the words of Bernstein himself, in his famous West Side Story Log and in letters to his wife Felicia.
This textual material is illustrated with photos from the original Broadway production, manuscript pages of some of the score's most famous numbers, and sessions photos from the 1984 recording. The evocative Dan Weiner photo, from which the new cover image derives, is also shown in its original context, as part of a delightful sequence taken of Bernstein with his wife in 1956.
*19 August 1957, National Theater, Washington D.C.; 26 September 1957, Winter Garden Theater, New York
R E V I E W S:
If the job of a 'crossover' record is to shatter preconceptions on both sides of any musical fence, then this is the greatest ever. Not all the aficionados of Broadway musicals are going to warm to de facto operatic treatment of West Side Story: not all opera-lovers or devotees of Leonard Bernstein as star conductor are going to rate West Side Story as an equivalent to opera. But any listener on whichever side of the fence who keeps any sort of open mind, forgetting the constriction of barriers, must recognize this historic set as superb entertainment and great music-making on every level, with an emotional impact closely akin to that of a Puccini opera and an intensity of excitement to match anything from disco to The Rite of Spring.
That of course is the doing of Leonard Bernstein as conductor as well as composer. It is astonishing that before this recording he had never conducted his most famous work. He has conducted many times and twice recorded the Symphonic Dances which in 1961, four years after the first appearance of the Broadway musical, he drew from the theatre score. But what appears on record here is indeed the theatre score (orchestrated by Bernstein with Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal) but without the potpourri overture which was originally used and which Bernstein himself did not write. That allows the very opening with its bare twitching rhythms, matching angular ballet movements, to have its full effect as the first of Bernstein's intensely original coups. That at once illustrates how the precision of ensemble from the selected band of New York musicians (from both sides of the fence, 'on and off Broadway') is far keener than you would evern get in a theatre performance. Some theatre traditionalists might even find that precision disconcerting, but in fact the balance of priorities has been shrewdly judged. Though the clarity and precision may make the result sound 'different', it is always spontaneous-sounding, involvingly so when the big set-piece dance numbers really get going. With John McClure, Bernstein's regular recording manager in charge, the sessions took place in the RCA Studio in New York last summer, and the relative dryness of sound is welcome when it keeps the sound-picture within an apt scale without losing necessary bloom on instruments and voices. Interestingly, compared with Bernstein's live recording of the Symphonic Dances made with the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1982 (DG 2532 082, 7/83), the new performance is sharper and clearer on its syncopations.
Interviewed by John Rockwell of the New York Times during the sessions, Bernstein noted how difficult it is to cast West Side Story, and explained that in a recording ''I decided to go for sound''.
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa may not be a soprano one would ever cast as Maria on stage, yet the beauty of the voice, its combination of richness, delicacy and purity, consistently brings out the musical strengths of Bernstein's inspiration. The sympathy in every phrase bears out what Dame Kiri herself said: ''This was music I'd grown up with, music I'd always wanted to sing.'' If the kittenish number ''I feel pretty'' at the start of Act 2 may initially seem to present a problem, what emerges from Dame Kiri's sparkling performance is the way that the girlishly coy lines suddenly explode in each stanza into a rich romantic line for the pay-off: ''For I'm loved by a pretty wonderful boy!''.
Similarly with Jose Carreras as Tony it is self-evident to point out how such a voice brings out the pure beauty of the big melodies like ''Maria'' or ''Tonight'', but even a sharp number like his first solo, ''Something's coming'', with floated pianissimos and subtly-graded crescendos allied to sharp rhythms, makes it more clearly a question-mark song, full of expectation, more than just a point number. If West Side Story set the pattern for a whole generation of Broadway musicals in combining the toughest of exteriors with the softest of centres, the refining process represented in this recording enhances that contrast. It is not just that the sweet numbers are made even more romantic (if with less sentimentalizing than usual) and the tough ones musically even sharper, but that the Puccinian tugs of emotion, directly related to the original Romeo and Juliet situations, are the more affecting. The isolation of Tony and Maria is brought home the more intensely, when with a degree of distancing it is an unnamed character who sings the accompanying song, the haunting ''Somewhere'' with its yearning opening line ''There's a place for us''. Marilyn Horne is in glorious voice for it, while Tatiana Troyanos took me by surprise as Anita with the way that she could switch her naturally beautiful operatic voice into a New York throaty snarl, rather like an Italian mezzo switching into a chest voice. Troyanos, it appears, was brought up in exactly the area of the West Side, where the story is supposed to be set, which makes her natural affinity with the idiom less surprising. Kurt Ollmann, American too, as Riff equally finds a very confident balance between the traditions of opera and those of the musical. Any question-mark, as I see it, lies not in the solo numbers but in the two overtly comic numbers, ''America'' for Anita and the girls' chorus and ''Ghee, Officer Krupke'' for the boys (not including Riff). My first feeling was that ''America'' worked, while the Krupke number sounded out of place, but the sheer high spirits of the latter have more and more captivated me, making its humour just as effective as the girls' number in the over-all scheme of sharp contrasts.
I hardly need recapitulate the merits of the big orchestral numbers, which are well known to a classical audience from the Symphonic Dances. Enough to say that hearing them in context makes me appreciate their musical originality the more, not least the ''Cool'' fugue with its disturbing augmented fourths. With dialogue reduced to an absolute minimum—limited almost entirely to the exchanges of Tony and Maria well spoken in a stylized way by Bernstein's son and daughter, not by Dame Kiri and Carreras—it is necessary to follow the libretto fully to appreciate the development of the story in many places and obviously in the keenly dramatic ballet sequences. In songs diction may not always be so clear as with less rich-toned singers, but after coaching Carreras has managed a very passable american accent and Dame Kiri a creditable Spanish-American one. The speed with which the whole piece moves is astounding, not just as a superb entertainment but as a Shakespearean tragedy modernized and intensified. I only hope this encourages a Bernstein recording of Candide as follow-up.
-- Edward Greenfield, Gramophone [4/1985, from review of DG 415253]
Reviewing an earlier release (29: 3), James Camner wrote, “This documentary is a must; there isn’t one boring moment in it. In a way, it is superior to the resulting recording.” My only quibble is with that hedge-phrase “in a way”—for as I hear it, the documentary is vastly superior in nearly every way. Don’t expect a sanitized picture of musicians working together in increasing harmony; while there’s plenty of enthusiasm, the film refuses to gloss over the stress and sheer crankiness involved in putting a project like this together. We see Bernstein at his most radiant—but also in near despair as he discovers that no one has transferred his revisions into the instrumental parts, even though he had stayed up until “four o’clock in the fucking morning” writing them out. We hear the singers taking off with the music; but we also witness Carreras’s frustrations with the part—and Bernstein’s frustrations with Carreras. At times, everyone works together well; at other times, the tensions between performers, producers, and engineers seem ready to sink the whole project. Yet in the end, you can only admire them all for their devotion, their energy, and what seems like endless labor. After watching it, it’s hard to take the recording—or, for that matter, any recording—for granted.
-- Peter J. Rabinowitz, FANFARE
Works on This Recording
West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein
Richard Harrell (Voice),
Marty Nelson (Voice),
Nina Bernstein (Spoken Vocals),
Louise Edeiken (Soprano),
Angelina Réaux (Soprano),
Stella Zambalis (Soprano),
David Livingston (Voice),
Stephen Bogardus (Voice),
Tod Lester (Voice),
Peter Thom (Voice),
Alexander Bernstein (Spoken Vocals),
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa (Soprano),
Kurt Ollmann (Baritone),
José Carreras (Tenor),
Marilyn Horne (Mezzo Soprano),
Tatiana Troyanos (Mezzo Soprano)
Period: 20th Century
Written: 1957; USA
Date of Recording: 09/1984
Venue: RCA Studio A, New York, NY
Length: 76 Minutes 36 Secs.
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