Ludwig van Beethoven

Biography

Born: 1770, Germany   Died: 1827, Austria   Period: Classical, Romantic
The events of Beethoven's life are the stuff of Romantic legend, evoking images of the solitary creator shaking his fist at Fate and finally overcoming it through a supreme effort of creative will. Born in the small German city of Bonn on or around December 16, 1770, he received his early training from his father and other local musicians. As a teenager, he earned some money as an assistant to his teacher, Christian Gottlob Neefe, then was Read more granted half of his father's salary as court musician from the Electorate of Cologne in order to care for his two younger brothers as his father gave in to alcoholism. Beethoven played viola in various orchestras, becoming friends with other players such as Antoine Reicha, Nikolaus Simrock, and Franz Ries, and began taking on composition commissions. As a member of the court chapel orchestra, he was able to travel some and meet members of the nobility, one of whom, Count Ferdinand Waldstein, would become a great friend and patron to him. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 to study with Haydn; despite the prickliness of their relationship, Haydn's concise humor helped form Beethoven's style. His subsequent teachers in composition were Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and Antonio Salieri. In 1794, he began his career in earnest as a pianist and composer, taking advantage whenever he could of the patronage of others. Around 1800, Beethoven began to notice his gradually encroaching deafness. His growing despondency only intensified his antisocial tendencies. However, the Symphony No. 3, "Eroica," of 1803 began a sustained period of groundbreaking creative triumph. In later years, Beethoven was plagued by personal difficulties, including a series of failed romances and a nasty custody battle over a nephew, Karl. Yet after a long period of comparative compositional inactivity lasting from about 1811 to 1817, his creative imagination triumphed once again over his troubles. Beethoven's late works, especially the last five of his 16 string quartets and the last four of his 32 piano sonatas, have an ecstatic quality in which many have found a mystical significance. Beethoven died in Vienna on March 26, 1827.
Beethoven's epochal career is often divided into early, middle, and late periods, represented, respectively, by works based on Classic-period models, by revolutionary pieces that expanded the vocabulary of music, and by compositions written in a unique, highly personal musical language incorporating elements of contrapuntal and variation writing while approaching large-scale forms with complete freedom. Though certainly subject to debate, these divisions point to the immense depth and multifariousness of Beethoven's creative personality. Beethoven profoundly transformed every genre he touched, and the music of the nineteenth century seems to grow from his compositions as if from a chrysalis. A formidable pianist, he moved the piano sonata from the drawing room to the concert hall with such ambitious and virtuosic middle-period works as the "Waldstein" (No. 21) and "Appassionata" (No. 23) sonatas. His song cycle An die ferne Geliebte of 1816 set the pattern for similar cycles by all the Romantic song composers, from Schubert to Wolf. The Romantic tradition of descriptive or "program" music began with Beethoven's "Pastoral" Symphony No. 6. Even in the second half of the nineteenth century, Beethoven still directly inspired both conservatives (such as Brahms, who, like Beethoven, fundamentally stayed within the confines of Classical form) and radicals (such as Wagner, who viewed the Ninth Symphony as a harbinger of his own vision of a total art work, integrating vocal and instrumental music with the other arts). In many ways revolutionary, Beethoven's music remains universally appealing because of its characteristic humanism and dramatic power. Read less
Beethoven: Complete Piano Sonatas / Maurizio Pollini
Release Date: 02/24/2015   Label: Deutsche Grammophon  
Catalog: 002235002   Number of Discs: 8
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Beethoven: String Quartets No 6 & 12 / Henschel Quartet
Release Date: 05/09/2006   Label: Arte Nova  
Catalog: 639960   Number of Discs: 1
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Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart: Songs / Mark Padmore
Release Date: 04/14/2015   Label: Harmonia Mundi  
Catalog: 907611   Number of Discs: 1
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Beethoven: Triple Concerto, Septet / Shaham, Bronfman, Zinman
Release Date: 04/11/2006   Label: Arte Nova  
Catalog: 640150   Number of Discs: 1
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Beethoven: Trio; Brahms: Trio; Weber: Grand Duo
Release Date: 11/11/2014   Label: Harmonia Mundi  
Catalog: 807618   Number of Discs: 1
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Work: Symphony no 8 in F major, Op. 93

 

Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93: I. Allegro vivace e con brio
II. Allegretto scherzando
III. Tempo di Menuetto
IV. Allegro vivace
About This Work
Beethoven completed this work in 1812, and conducted the first performance at Vienna on February 27, 1814. The year 1812 was both eventful and productive for the very deaf but very famous Beethoven. In July, at Teplitz spa, he finally met the great Read more Goethe (1749-1832), but was disappointed to find (in his opinion) an aging courtier who was neither a firebrand nor a fellow democrat, and furthermore a musical dilettante. In turn, Beethoven's power both as a person and as an artist impressed Goethe, but the old poet-playwright was fatigued by his high-pitched intensity and offended by a lack of manners bordering on rudeness.

Withal, Beethoven somehow made time in 1812 to compose a final violin and piano sonata (Op. 96), and to complete a new pair of symphonies. Nos. 7 and 8, begun in 1809 (the year of the Emperor Concerto), were related in much the way his Fifth and Sixth symphonies had been. In 1813 he conducted the Dionysian Seventh to great acclaim, but saved the elfin Eighth for an 1814 concert where it was fatally sandwiched between the Seventh Symphony and Wellington's Victory, or the Battle of Vittoria. This last was adored by the audience in direct proportion to its awfulness, but they only sniffed at the Eighth.

Compared to the Seventh, No. 8 is benign as well as brief. There are four movements, in all of which the old Classical forms are clearly delineated but somehow thrown out of balance by a constant barrage of curiously humorous distortions. Were the work not such an essentially lyrical joy, one might divine hints of the creative crisis to come for its maker. Its metronomic second movement (which is perhaps an actual tweaking of the recently invented metronome) has only 81 bars -- the fewest in Beethoven's symphonic canon. The composer asked that the third movement be played Tempo di minuetto (in fact it is a Ländler), rather than at scherzo speed. The movement's heavy, graceless accents seem to poke fun at the courtly world only recently passed.The first and final movements are both written in sonata form, both marked Allegro vivace -- con brio, too, in the first.

Beethoven reserved for the finale a leviathan-length coda, by then one of his musical signatures -- 236 bars, only 30 fewer than the combined exposition, development, and reprise! The movement wears its complexity so lightly that its true subtlety may all too easily pass unnoticed. Sudden loud interruptions in a very remote key herald still more radical explorations in the development. Here, the main rondo theme is debated in counterpoint, with cross rhythms and unexpected harmonic twists. But the giant coda is only the last joke in a work of cloudless skies and merriment. As John N. Burk summed the work up in his evergreen Life and Works of Beethoven: " humor seems to consist of sudden turns in the course of an even and lyrical flow, breaking in upon formal, almost archaic periods. It is a sudden irregularity, showing its head where all regular -- an altered rhythm, an explosion of fortissimo, a foreign note or an unrelated tonality...like divine play in that pure region of tonal thinking melody and invention pour forth...and fancy is furiously alive." Beethoven himself thought it one of his best symphonies, while Robert Schumann praised its "profound humor" and wrote that the second movement particularly filled him with "tranquility and happiness." Read less

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Ludwig van Beethoven


WORKS
Beethoven: Symphony No.3 In E Flat, Op.55 -"Eroica" - 1. Allegro con brio
Beethoven: Symphony No.3 In E Flat, Op.55 -"Eroica" - 2. Marcia funebre (Adagio assai)
Beethoven: Symphony No.3 In E Flat, Op.55 -"Eroica" - 3. Scherzo (Allegro vivace)
Beethoven: Symphony No.3 In E Flat, Op.55 -"Eroica" - 4. Finale (Allegro molto)
Beethoven: Symphony No.5 In C Minor, Op.67 - 1. Allegro con brio
Beethoven: Symphony No.5 In C Minor, Op.67 - 2. Andante con moto
Beethoven: Symphony No.5 In C Minor, Op.67 - 3. Allegro
Beethoven: Symphony No.5 In C Minor, Op.67 - 4. Allegro
I. Awakening of Cheerful Feelings Upon Arrival in the Country: Allegro ma non troppo
II. Scene by the Brook: Andante molto mosso
III. Merry Gathering of Country Folk: Allegro
IV. Thunderstorm: Allegro
V. Shepherd's Song: Happy and Thankful Feelings after the Storm: Allegretto
Beethoven: Symphony No.7 In A, Op.92 - 1. Poco sostenuto - Vivace
Beethoven: Symphony No.7 In A, Op.92 - 2. Allegretto
Beethoven: Symphony No.7 In A, Op.92 - 3. Presto - Assai meno presto
Beethoven: Symphony No.7 In A, Op.92 - 4. Allegro con brio
Beethoven: Symphony No.9 In D Minor, Op.125 - "Choral" - 1. Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso
Beethoven: Symphony No.9 In D Minor, Op.125 - "Choral" - 2. Molto vivace
Beethoven: Symphony No.9 In D Minor, Op.125 - "Choral" - 3. Adagio molto e cantabile
Beethoven: Symphony No.9 In D Minor, Op.125 - "Choral" - 4. Presto
Beethoven: Symphony No.9 In D Minor, Op.125 - "Choral" / 4. - Presto - "O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!" - Allegro assai
Concerto No. 3 in C minor for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 37: I. Allegro con brio
II. Largo
III. Rondo: Allegro
I. Allegro con brio
II. Adagio
III. Rondo. Molto allegro
Concerto No. 5 in E-flat Major for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 73 "Emperor": I. Allegro
II. Adagio un poco moto
III. Rondo. Allegro
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, Op. 61: First movement: Allegro ma non troppo (Cadenza by Kreisler)
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, Op. 61: Second movement: Larghetto
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, Op. 61: Third movement: Rondo (Allegro) (Cadenza by Kreisler)
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.14 In C Sharp Minor, Op.27 No.2 -"Moonlight" - 1. Adagio sostenuto
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.14 In C Sharp Minor, Op.27 No.2 -"Moonlight" - 2. Allegretto
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.14 In C Sharp Minor, Op.27 No.2 -"Moonlight" - 3. Presto agitato
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.23 In F Minor, Op.57 -"Appassionata" - 1. Allegro assai
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.23 In F Minor, Op.57 -"Appassionata" - 2. Andante con moto
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.23 In F Minor, Op.57 -"Appassionata" - 3. Allegro ma non troppo
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.8 In C Minor, Op.13 -"Pathétique" - 1. Grave - Allegro di molto e con brio
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.8 In C Minor, Op.13 -"Pathétique" - 2. Adagio cantabile
Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.8 In C Minor, Op.13 -"Pathétique" - 3. Rondo (Allegro)
Kyrie
Gloria
Credo
Sanctus
Agnus Dei


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