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Franz Liszt

Biography

Born: 1811   Died: 1886   Country: Hungary   Period: Romantic
Liszt was the only contemporary whose music Richard Wagner gratefully acknowledged as an influence upon his own. His lasting fame was an alchemy of extraordinary digital ability -- the greatest in the history of keyboard playing -- an unmatched instinct for showmanship, and one of the most progressive musical imaginations of his time. Hailed by some as a visionary, reviled by others as a symbol of empty Romantic excess, Franz Liszt wrote his name Read more across music history in a truly inimitable manner.

From his youth, Liszt demonstrated a natural facility at the keyboard that placed him among the top performing prodigies of his day. Though contemporary accounts describe his improvisational skill as dazzling, his talent as a composer emerged only in his adulthood. Still, he was at the age of eleven the youngest contributor to publisher Anton Diabelli's famous variation commissioning project, best remembered as the inspiration for Beethoven's final piano masterpiece. An oft-repeated anecdote -- first recounted by Liszt himself decades later, and possibly fanciful -- has Beethoven attending a recital given by the youngster and bestowing a kiss of benediction upon him.

Though already a veteran of the stage by his teens, Liszt recognized the necessity of further musical tuition. He studied for a time with Czerny and Salieri in Vienna, and later sought acceptance to the Paris Conservatory. When he was turned down there -- foreigners were not then admitted -- he instead studied privately with Anton Reicha. Ultimately, his Hungarian origins proved a great asset to his career, enhancing his aura of mystery and exoticism and inspiring an extensive body of works, none more famous than the Hungarian Rhapsodies (1846-1885).

Liszt soon became a prominent figure in Parisian society, his romantic entanglements providing much material for gossip. Still, not even the juiciest accounts of his amorous exploits could compete with the stories about his wizardry at the keyboard. Inspired by the superhuman technique -- and, indeed, diabolical stage presence -- of the violinist Paganini, Liszt set out to translate these qualities to the piano. As his career as a touring performer, conductor, and teacher burgeoned, he began to devote an increasing amount of time to composition. He wrote most of his hundreds of original piano works for his own use; accordingly, they are frequently characterized by technical demands that push performers -- and in Liszt's own day, the instrument itself -- to their limits. The "transcendence" of his Transcendental Etudes (1851), for example, is not a reference to the writings of Emerson and Thoreau, but an indication of the works' level of difficulty. Liszt was well into his thirties before he mastered the rudiments of orchestration -- works like the Piano Concerto No. 1 (1849) were orchestrated by talented students -- but made up for lost time in the production of two "literary" symphonies (Faust, 1854-1857, and Dante, 1855-1856) and a series of orchestral essays (including Les préludes, 1848-1854) that marks the genesis of the tone poem as a distinct genre.

After a lifetime of near-constant sensation, Liszt settled down somewhat in his later years. In his final decade he joined the Catholic Church and devoted much of his creative effort to the production of sacred works. The complexion of his music darkened; the flash that had characterized his previous efforts gave way to a peculiar introspection, manifested in strikingly original, forward-looking efforts like Nuages gris (1881). Liszt died in Bayreuth, Germany, on July 31, 1886, having outlived Wagner, his son-in-law and greatest creative beneficiary. Read less
Liszt: Duo Sonata On Polish Themes
Release Date: 12/09/2014   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8573145   Number of Discs: 1
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Liszt: Complete Piano Music Vol 13 / Jenö Jandó
Release Date: 10/26/1999   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8554481   Number of Discs: 1
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Liszt: Complete Piano Music Vol 1 / Arnaldo Cohen
Release Date: 06/10/1997   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8553852   Number of Discs: 1
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Mussorgsky: Pictures At An Exhibition; Liszt: Piano Concerto No 1
Release Date: 09/30/2008   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8570716   Number of Discs: 1
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Liszt: Transcriptions And Arrangements  / Soyeon Kate Lee
Release Date: 01/28/2014   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8572589   Number of Discs: 1
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Work: Liebesträume for Piano, S 541: no 3, O Lieb, so lang

 

About This Work
There are three Liebesträume (Dreams of Love), and the third is by far the most popular. Each is a transcription of a song Liszt had written about three years before. The song upon which the third of the Liebesträume is based is O Lieb, so Read more lang du lieben kannst, a setting of the poem by Ferdinand Freiligrath. The piece was originally published as Notturno No. 3 and carried the song's title as a subtitle.

A more purely Lisztian creation would be hard to imagine than the passionate, sentimental melody that is clearly behind the work's popularity. It has a sweetness and directness at the outset, then grows impassioned in the middle section. After a climax that features some bravura writing, the melody returns to its more tranquil opening mood, though now more reflective and sadder. While this is undeniably a simple formula, it is nonetheless an effective one that Liszt makes the most of in the five minutes or so of music.

Liszt's third Liebesträume eventually became so popular and overplayed that by the mid-20th century pianists began dropping it from their repertory. Though that trend eventually reversed, the piece is still not as often performed as it once was.

-- Robert Cummings
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