Ralph Vaughan Williams


Born: Oct 12, 1872; England   Died: Aug 26, 1958; England   Period: 20th Century
Ralph Vaughan Williams left a varied oeuvre that includes orchestral works, songs, operas, and various choral compositions. While primarily drawing on the rich tradition of English folksong and hymnody, Vaughan Williams produced well-loved works that fit into larger European traditions and gained worldwide popularity.
Vaughan Williams, who lost his father early in life, was cared for by his mother. Related, through his mother, to both
Read more Charles Darwin and the Wedgwoods of pottery fame, he grew up without financial worries. He studied history and music at Trinity College, Cambridge, and finished up at the Royal College of Music, where he worked with Parry, Wood, and Stanford. In 1897, the year he married Adeline Fisher, Vaughan Williams traveled to Berlin to study with Max Bruch, also seeking Maurice Ravel as a teacher several years later, despite the fact that the French composer was three years his junior. In 1903, he started collecting English folksongs; certain characteristics of English folk music, particularly its modal tonalities, in many ways informed his approach to composition. Vaughan Williams further developed his style while working as editor of the English Hymnal, which was completed in 1906. His work on the English Hymnal went beyond editing, for he contributed several new hymn tunes, most notably the Sine nomine, the tune for the hymn For All the Saints. The composer's interest in and knowledge of traditional English music is reflected in his song cycle On Wenlock Edge (1909), based on selections from A.E. Housman's immensely popular volume of poetry A Shropshire Lad. In his Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis, composed in 1910, Vaughan Williams introduced antiphonal effects within the context of modal tonality, juxtaposing consonant, but unrelated, triads. Composed in 1914, his Symphony No. 2, "A London Symphony" brings to life, with great charm, the sounds of London from dawn to dusk. That year, Vaughan Williams also wrote his pastoral The Lark Ascending, for violin and orchestra. When World War I broke out, the 41-year-old composer enlisted as an orderly in the medical corps, becoming famous for organizing choral singing and other entertainment in the trenches. He was commissioned from the ranks, ending his war service as an artillery officer. The war interrupted the composer's work but did not, it seems, disrupt the inner continuity of his creative development. The Symphony No. 3 ("Pastoral"), composed in 1922, conjures up a familiar world, effectively incorporating folksong motives into sonorities created by sequential chords. While critics detected pessimistic moods and themes in the later symphonies, ascribing a shift to a darker vision to the composer's alleged general pessimism about the world, Vaughan Williams refused to attach any programmatic content to these works. However, the composer created a convincing musical description of a desolate world in his Symphony No. 7 "Sinfonia Antarctica" (1952), which was inspired by the request to write the music for the film Scott of the Antarctic. In addition to his symphonies, Vaughan Williams composed highly acclaimed religious music, as well as works inspired by English spiritual literature, culminating in his 1951 opera The Pilgrim's Progress, based on the spiritual classic by John Bunyan. An artist of extraordinary creative energy, Vaughan Williams continued composing with undiminished powers until his death at 87. Read less
Vaughan Williams: Willow-wood, Etc / Lloyd-jones, Et Al
Release Date: 11/15/2005   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8557798   Number of Discs: 1
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Vaughan Williams: The Lark Ascending / Vittorio, Chamber Orchestra of New York
Release Date: 11/11/2016   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8573530   Number of Discs: 1
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Vaughan-williams: Symphony No 2, The Wasps Overture / Bakels
Release Date: 06/28/1994   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8550734   Number of Discs: 1
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Vaughan Williams: Symphonies 3 & 6 / Kees Bakels, Bournemouth SO
Release Date: 10/04/1994   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8550733   Number of Discs: 1
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Vaughan Williams: Job, The Lark Ascending / Lloyd-jones
Release Date: 06/10/1997   Label: Naxos  
Catalog: 8553955   Number of Discs: 1
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Work: Fantasia on Greensleeves


About This Work
In 1913 Vaughan Williams wrote an entr'acte as part of his incidental music for King Richard II using the popular traditional melody, Greensleeves. He drew on the theme again, more memorably, when he composed his opera Sir John in Love (1924 - 1928), Read more yet another work based on Shakespeare's Falstaff. It appears in the prelude to Act III and is followed by Mistress Ford's vocal account of the Greensleeves music, sung to lute accompaniment.

In 1934, under the direction of Vaughan Williams, Ralph Greaves adapted the instrumental version of this music to fashion the Fantasia on Greensleeves. Its scoring is for strings and harp (or piano), with optional parts for flutes. This has been one of Vaughan Williams' most widely performed and enduring compositions, far outpacing the popularity of the opera from which it was drawn. Other instrumental arrangements of the Greensleeves music followed, including ones for piano duet (1942) and for two pianos (1945), both by Hubert J. Foss, for violin and piano (1944) by Michael Mullinar, and for cello (or viola) and piano (1947) by Watson Forbes.

In addition, there were numerous arrangements of the Mistress Ford Greensleeves song from the opera. These include one for organ by Stanley Roper (1947) and uncredited or anonymous ones for voice and piano, for women voices and piano, and for male voices and tenor solo unaccompanied. There were also several choral arrangements.

But, of course, it is the Fantasia on Greensleeves that has garnered the most attention. The composer's use of the theme is simple and direct throughout, the strings warmly playing the melody, with harp chords accompanying. The brief middle section uses another folk melody, Lovely Joan. It is livelier and has a peasant heartiness about its joyous manner. In the alternate version, the flutes are given some prominence here when they take up this colorful theme after the lower strings introduce it. The melody returns to close out this five-minute piece. The other chamber adaptations of the Greensleeves music generally follow this same structure, keeping the melody and the other folk music simple. They are in fact considered arrangements of the Fantasia itself. The vocal versions drawn from the Greensleeves song in the opera are also generally faithful adaptations, quite effective in their own right.
-- Robert Cummings<br />
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