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Stanford Archive Series Vol 4 / Ernestine Schumann-heink


Release Date: 03/03/1998 
Label:  Delos   Catalog #: 5503   Spars Code: ADD 
Composer:  Adolf MehrkensLuigi ArditiFranz SchubertRichard Wagner,   ... 
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-HeinkCharles Adams PrinceGeraldine FarrarKatherine Hoffmann
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Number of Discs: 2 
Recorded in: Mono 
Length: 2 Hours 0 Mins. 

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Notes and Editorial Reviews



ERNESTINE SCHUMANN-HEINK: OPERA ARIAS & SONGS 1900-1935 Ernestine Schumann-Heink (alt); Geraldine Farrar (sop); 1 Herbert Witherspoon (bar); 2 Katherine Hoffmann (pn); 3 Stewart Wille (org); 4 Rosario Bourdon, cond 5 DELOS 5503, mono (2 CDs: 156:47 Text and Translation) Read more />

MEHRKENS Wie ein Grüssen. ARDITI Leggero invisibile. SCHUBERT Der tod und das Mädchen. 3 Die Forelle. 3 Der Erlkönig. WAGNER Das Rheingold: Weiche, Wotan, weiche (1907 & 1929 vers.). Rienzi: Gerechter Gott! Traüme. 5 Götterdämmerung: Höre mit sinn. MEYERBEER Le Prophète: Ah, mon fils; O prêtres de Baal…Il va venir. MILLÖCKER Drei Paar Schuhe: I und mei Bua. DONIZETTI Lucrezia Borgia: Il segreto in German. MOZART La clemenza di Tito: Parto, parto ma tu ben mio. GOUNOD Sapho: O ma lyre immortelle. SCHUMANN Mondnacht. E. H. G. HERMANN Barbchen. H. HERMANN Schlafliedchen. SAINT-SAËNS Samson et Dalila: Printemps qui commence in German; Mon cœur s’ouvre in German. RAFF Sei still. RONALD 3 A Cycle of Life: Down in the forest. RUBINSTEIN 1 Wanderers Nachtlied. DELIBES Good Morning, Sue -Bonjour, Suzon. GRIEG Moderen Synger in English. Im Kahne. BRAHMS Sapphische Ode. Wiegenlied. LOEWE Das Erkennen. FOSTER 3 Old Black Joe. STRAUSS 3 Traum durch die Dämmerung. MANAHAN 5 Shepherd’s Love. HUERTER 5 Pirate Dreams. GRUBER Stille Nacht ( 1926 & 1935 vers). HUMPERDINCK 4,5 Weihnachten. ELGAR 3 Land of Hope and Glory. CARPENTER 3 The Home Road. KEY 3 Star-Spangled Banner. TRAD. IRISH 3 Danny Boy. HILDACH 3 Der Lenz. NEVIN The Rosary. O’HARA 5 There is No Death. MENDELSSOHN 3 St. Paul: And he journeyed…But the Lord is mindful of his own. ESENWEIN 5 Taps


Perhaps the most famous anecdote about Ernestine Schumann-Heink is the one where she was giving a concert with an orchestra, and arrived at the hall for the rehearsal. The musicians’ chairs and music stands were already set up on stage, but no corridor was cleared for the contralto to get to the center of the stage. As she moved her great girth through what she perceived as the widest row, music stands were knocked helter-skelter on the stage. One of the few musicians already in place turned to her and said, “Tinka, why don’t you come in sideways?” “Can’t you see?” asked the great contralto. “I don’t got no sideways!”


This story—which certainly should be true, even if it’s exaggerated—is typical of Schumann-Heink’s self-deprecating humor. She took herself and her art very seriously indeed, but a life full of hard knocks and struggles that would have crushed a lesser spirit had taught her that not only was fame fleeting, but that it was extraordinarily hard to earn even with the greatest contralto voice in the world if you looked like a washerwoman. At her first audition in Vienna, the homely Ernestine Rossler, clad in a homemade dress and army boots, was told to go home and become a dressmaker. Even after serious study and acceptance into the opera corps of Dresden, she was forced into eight years of servitude in bit parts. Halfway through this ordeal she met and married Ernst Heink, a secretary at the opera, but after four years of nothing but bit parts and babies Heink fled the coop and ran away to Saxony. Ernestine only got her big break due to the capricious whims of the opera house’s star contralto, Marie Goetze, who refused at the last minute to go on as Carmen. Heink got the job and created a sensation. Goetze thought she would sabotage her new rival by canceling out of Meyerbeer’s Le prophète, which she was sure that Heink couldn’t sing, but she was wrong. Not only did she sing it, she did so better than Goetze, and in fact this was the production that made Heink a major star. Fidès in Prophète was followed by Ortrud in Lohengrin, and Heink’s “Entweihte Gotter!” practically tore the roof down. Goetze’s career was finished; Heink’s real career was just beginning.


In 1893, now a star, Ernestine married Paul Schumann of the Thalia Theater in Hamburg. Two years later Lillian Nordica sang Elsa opposite Schumann-Heink’s Ortrud, and came back to New York raving about the contralto to Maurice Grau of the Metropolitan Opera. Her international career was now assured. But more tragedy was waiting for her in the wings. Schumann became very ill, and she had to support him and eight children on an opera singer’s salary. Unable to do so, in 1903 she signed up to perform a comic operetta titled Love’s Lottery on Broadway. Much to everyone’s surprise, despite her powerful operatic voice and heavy German accent, her raucous sense of comedy won the day and made her a star. Love’s Lottery went on tour, and Ernestine went with it, after which—her second husband now deceased—she took her career into her own hands and began the first of several extensive concert tours of the U.S. Later in life, she became a major star on American radio and, believe it or not, of movies ( Here’s to Romance, 1934, with Anita Louise, Reginald Denny, and Nino Martini). Thus Schumann-Heink may be viewed as an early feminist model in addition to being a great singer. Though she continued to occasionally return to opera, off and on, through 1932 (among other triumphs, she created Klytemnestra in Strauss’s Elektra in 1909), she was really a free agent, carving out her own career in a way that singers like John McCormack, Louis Graveure, Grace Moore, Igor Gorin, and Eileen Farrell would emulate in the decades to come.


In looking through the Fanfare Archive, I did not find any review of this set even though it was issued by Delos in 1998, but I did find enthusiastic reviews of Schumann-Heink recordings on the Nimbus and Marston labels by James Camner. One of the recordings that Camner points to as proof positive of Schumann-Heink’s superiority is the extended prison scene from Le prophète. It is indeed an exemplary recording, sung with a musically clean style, great vigor, and splendidly placed runs in the coloratura fireworks, but I wonder if Camner ever heard Louis Homer’s unissued 1903 Victor recording with piano. Homer had to abridge the scene to fit one 12-inch 78-rpm side, and at the very end her final high note comes out flat, but in the rest of the recording she is absolutely riveting, singing the music with more fire than Schumann-Heink albeit with a few extra high notes thrown in for good measure. The point I’m making is that sometimes you shouldn’t rush to judgment on certain singers. This was an era of great contraltos, period, and even though Schumann-Heink became the darling of the American public and Homer remained “just” an opera singer, you can’t discount the fact that both Homer and Rosa Olitzka were at the Met during the Schumann-Heink era and must be reckoned with as well.


What one does get here, which you normally wouldn’t except in a Complete Recordings type of compilation, is a large number of semi-popular songs of the type that languish in that gray area between “semi-classical” and “popular trash,” the worst of which are Shepherd’s Love , Ethelbert Nevin’s exceptionally popular The Rosary , and Charles Huerter’s Pirate Dreams , the last-named the kind of song that was very popular among white middle-class Americans of the time but which causes listeners today to ask, “Are you kidding?” McCormack had a similarly ghastly tune which he even stuck into his 1929 film Song O’ My Heart, entitled “Little Boy Blue.” These are the kind of songs where adults seem to revel in the adorable get-ups and fantasies of little children. The effect is as bad as if a classical singer of the 1950s followed up Strauss’s “Zueignung” with the pop tune I’m the Captain of the Space Ship . But you have to accept the mawkish with the great, because whether we like it or not, this material made up a good portion of Schumann-Heink’s concert programs. We were far, far away from the days when classical singers programmed at least 95 percent art songs in their recitals, and the closest one came to art in this field were possibly Stephen Foster songs. Speaking of Foster, one may think before listening to it that the mere thought of Schumann-Heink singing Old Black Joe would be as off-putting as Frieda Hempel’s recording of My Kentucky Babe , but when you listen to it you realize why she recorded it. She really feels, quite deeply, the first three lines of each verse, in which the lyrics dwell on days gone by “when my heart was young and gay,” where hearts were “once so happy and so free, the children so dear that I held upon my knee.” These lyrics might almost have been written for her, so close to the pain and tragedy of her personal life did they come, yet the sensitive listener recognizes the “white massa’s” implication that Old Black Joe and his friends were “so happy and so free” despite the fact that they were slaves. I think if Schumann-Heink knew the real meaning of the song, she would not have sung it.


Of the selections here, many are superb, though I personally like her Victor recording of Arditi’s Leggero invisibile better than the Columbia and the Columbia recordings of “Der tod und das Mädchen” and “Mon cœur” from Samson et Dalila better than the Victors, especially the former where she sounds much more dramatic in the opening verse of Schubert’s song (not to mention that the Columbia is properly accompanied by piano instead of a dreadful-sounding orchestration). Yet there is much here that is priceless, and often in surprising places. On a radio broadcast transcript of June 1934, Schumann-Heink states that she was Brahms’s favorite interpreter of his songs and that he wrote three of them—the Alto Rhapsody, the Lullaby, and Sapphische Ode —specifically for her. There is no written proof of this, but as Schumann-Heink was not known to be immodest of her talents or a braggart, there is no reason to doubt her word, and what she actually says is that Brahms “gave them” to her a few months before his death. Thus it’s no surprise that her recording of Brahms’s Sapphische Ode is superb, but it is surprising to hear how well she could lighten that big, bright, dramatic contralto voice for the Lullaby, Schumann’s Mondnacht, and Schubert’s Die Forelle.


This brings us to an examination of Schumann-Heink’s musical styling. In music from the Classical era and that written from the late 19th century on, her styling is clean in the modern sense of the term, but in music of the early 19th century—the Schubert songs and the aria from Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia —she indulges in ritards and long-held high notes that seem musically capricious, designed simply to show off the beauty of her voice. Yet, as I say, this approach was not applied to everything; the day after she recorded the “Brindisi” from Lucrezia Borgia with its soft, high, long-held high notes and trills, she recorded “Parto, parto” from Mozart’s La clemenza di Tito with absolutely perfect style that still holds up today.


A large part of Schumann-Heink’s superiority as a singer came from the very fact that her voice was so malleable. Listen to Clara Butt, the famous British contralto, sing Land of Hope and Glory , and you’ll hear her boom out those chest notes with foghorn volume. Listen to Schumann-Heink and, although she had power in every range of her voice and to spare, she also knew how to make effective musical contrasts. There is a certain charm in her Die forelle , again sung with lightness and a smile despite her rallentandos, but the real gem among the Schubert group is Erlkönig . I can’t recall another version of this song, by anybody (and that includes such idols of mine as Kipnis, Fischer-Dieskau, and Schumann-Heink herself from the 1911 Victor recording), in which the four different voices (narrator, father, young boy, Erl-king) are delineated with such absolute perfection; and, moreover, where the drama of the situation is given with such extreme vividness. My favorite moment, among several such, is near the end, when the Erl-king sings: “I love you, your beautiful figure delights me, and if you are not willing, then I shall use force!” On the word “force” (“Gewalt” in German) Schumann-Heink’s voice suddenly increases in volume and intensity, and she almost uses the word to lunge at the boy. You can almost see it. Similarly, in her performances of the famed Christmas carol Stille nacht (the second version, a radio broadcast from 1935, sung in her own very different English translation), Schumann-Heink actually creates a “stillness” in the music, lightening her tone in such a way as to allow the entire carol to “float” upon the breath. No one I’ve heard has ever sung it this well.


The three most interesting tracks are two of the 1929 broadcast transcripts ( Land of Hope and Glory and The Home Road ) and the live performance of the Mendelssohn St. Paul aria from New York’s Roxy Theater in 1931. Here, the voice has a distinctly different sound from her studio recordings: brighter, more ringing, with a good amount of “squillo” in the voice. By contrast, the rare unpublished 1900 Zonophone disc (issued only in 1954 by William Seltsam’s IRCC label) reveals an entirely different voice: Placed higher in the masque, lighter in overall timbre, and with an even more prominent vibrato than in her other recordings, she sounds much more like Rita Gorr than we are used to. Kathleen Hoffmann, who was apparently Schumann-Heink’s regular accompanist, was efficient but not particularly interesting—par for the course with vocal accompanists in this era. (I speak here of accompanists who toured with singers as opposed to recording sessions on which such artists as Reynaldo Hahn, Coenraad V. Bos, Michael Raucheisen, or the young Gerald Moore appeared.)


The transfers, made by John Eargle, are professionally done, not very different from the work done by Ward Marston or Seth Winner. Most but not all surface noise is removed, the 1900 Zonophone being the noisiest. My issue with this method is that it doesn’t go far enough towards restoring the actual sound of the voice as heard on the 1929 broadcasts and 1931 live performance. What they should have done after noise removal was to brighten the treble in order to restore the “ring” of the voice, and perhaps a judicious amount of reverb to offset the extreme dryness of the sound-deadening acoustic recording studios. Nevertheless, if you are interested in hearing Schumann-Heink in a representative sampling of her repertoire and many performances that have deservedly gained legendary status, this two-CD set will give you a much better impression than the single disc issued on Nimbus a year or two earlier, in which too much reverb and echo were added.


As I conclude this review, I wish to pose a question: If we know that Brahms wrote Sapphische Ode and the Alto Rhapsody for Schumann-Heink and/or had her voice in mind when writing them, and preferred her interpretations of his songs more than many other singers,’ why don’t modern-day contraltos—in an effort to provide us with historically informed performances—emulate her timbre, phrasing, and interpretation? Inquiring minds want to know! Despite my few caveats noted above, this set is very highly recommended.


FANFARE: Lynn René Bayley
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Works on This Recording

1. Wie ein Grüssen, Op. 18 by Adolf Mehrkens
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Date of Recording: 1900 
2. Leggero invisible "Bolero" by Luigi Arditi
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Charles Adams Prince (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: Italy 
Date of Recording: 02/1903 
3. Der Tod und das Mädchen, D 531/Op. 7 no 3 by Franz Schubert
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1817; Vienna, Austria 
Date of Recording: 1907 
Language: German 
4. Das Rheingold: Weiche, Wotan, weiche by Richard Wagner
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1854; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: German 
5. Le Prophète: O prêtres de Baal by Giacomo Meyerbeer
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1849; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1907 
Language: French 
6. Le Prophète: Il va venir by Giacomo Meyerbeer
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1849; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1907 
Language: French 
7. Rienzi: Gerechter Gott! by Richard Wagner
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1840-1843; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1908 
Language: German 
8. I und mei bua by Karl Millöcker
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: Austria 
Date of Recording: 1908 
9. Lucrezia Borgia: Il segreto per esser felice "Brindisi" by Gaetano Donizetti
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1833; Italy 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: German 
10. La clemenza di Tito, K 621: Parto, parto, ma tu ben mio by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Classical 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: Italian 
11. Sapho: O ma lyre immortelle by Charles Gounod
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1851; France 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: French 
12. Liederkreis, Op. 39: no 5, Mondnacht by Robert Schumann
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1840; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: German 
13. Samson et Dalila, Op. 47: Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix by Camille Saint-Saëns
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1877; France 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: German 
14. Le Prophète: Ah, mon fils! by Giacomo Meyerbeer
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1849; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1909 
Language: French 
15. Wesendonck Lieder: no 5, Träume by Richard Wagner
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1857-1858; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1911 
Language: German 
16. Samson et Dalila, Op. 47: Printemps, qui commence by Camille Saint-Saëns
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1877; France 
Date of Recording: 1913 
Language: German 
17. Songs (12) on Russian texts, Op. 48: no 5, Wanderers Nachtlied by Anton Rubinstein
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Geraldine Farrar (Soprano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1852; Russia 
Date of Recording: 1913 
Language: German 
18. Bonjour, Suzon by Léo Delibes
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1861; France 
Date of Recording: 1913 
19. Songs (5), Op. 60: no 2, The mother sings by Edvard Grieg
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1893-1894; Norway 
Date of Recording: 1915 
20. Songs (5), Op. 60: no 3, While I wait by Edvard Grieg
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Date of Recording: 1913 
21. Songs (5), Op. 94: no 4, Sapphische Ode by Johannes Brahms
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1883-1884; Austria 
Date of Recording: 09/14/1915 
Language: German 
Notes: This selection begins with Ernestine Schumann-Heink speaking during a radio broadcast about her reminiscences of Brahms. 
22. Songs (5), Op. 49: no 4, Wiegenlied by Johannes Brahms
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1868; Austria 
Date of Recording: 1915 
Language: German 
23. Ballads (3), Op. 65: no 2, Das Erkennen by Carl Loewe
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1837; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1915 
Language: German 
24. Old black Joe by Stephen Foster
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1860; USA 
Date of Recording: 1921 
Language: English 
Notes: This selection includes a spoken dedication by Ernestine Schumann-Heink. 
25. Lieder (3), Op. 29: no 1, Traum durch die Dämmerung by Richard Strauss
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Written: 1895 
Date of Recording: 1923 
Language: German 
26. Shepherd's love by W. A. Manahan
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Date of Recording: 1924 
Language: English 
27. Silent Night by Franz Xaver Gruber
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Classical 
Written: 1818; Austria 
Date of Recording: 1935 
Language: German 
Notes: This selection includes a spoken introduction by Ernestine Schumann-Heink and Wallace Berry. 
28. Coronation Ode, Op. 44: Land of Hope and Glory by Sir Edward Elgar
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1901-1902; England 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: English 
29. Die Forelle, D 550 by Franz Schubert
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1817; Vienna, Austria 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: German 
30. Danny Boy "Londonderry Air" by Traditional
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Written: Ireland 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: English 
31. Der Lenz, Op 19 no 5 by Eugen Hildach
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: German 
32. Götterdämmerung: Höre mit Sinn was ich dir sage by Richard Wagner
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1874; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: German 
33. Der Erlkönig, D 328 by Franz Schubert
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1815; Vienna, Austria 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: German 
34. The Rosary by Ethelbert Nevin
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: by 1898; USA 
Date of Recording: 1930 
Language: English 
35. Saint Paul, Op. 36: But the Lord is mindful of His own by Felix Mendelssohn
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1836; Germany 
Date of Recording: 01/11/1931 
Venue:  Live  Roxy Theater, New York 
Language: English 
Notes: This selection begins with "And he journeyed..." 
36. Taps by Traditional
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Date of Recording: 1931 
Notes: Arranged: J. Pasternack 
37. Barbchen by Hans Hermann
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Written: Germany 
Date of Recording: 09/17/1909 
38. Schlafliedchen, Op. 53 no 3 by Hans Hermann
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Date of Recording: 09/17/1909 
39. Sei still by Joseph Joachim Raff
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: Romantic 
Date of Recording: 12/07/1911 
40. Pirate Dreams by Charles Huerter
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Period: 20th Century 
Date of Recording: 09/29/1924 
41. The Home Road by John Alden Carpenter
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: 20th Century 
Date of Recording: 01/12/1929 
42. There is no death by Geoffrey O'Hara
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Period: 20th Century 
43. The Star-spangled Banner by John Stafford Smith
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto), Katherine Hoffmann (Piano)
Period: Classical 
Written: by 1814 
Date of Recording: 1929 
Language: English 
44. Cycle of Life: no 2, Down in the forest by Ronald, Landon, Sir
Performer:  Katherine Hoffmann (Piano), Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Period: 20th Century 
Written: by 1906; England 
Date of Recording: 1913 
Language: English 
45. Weihnachten, EHWV 111 by Engelbert Humperdinck
Performer:  Ernestine Schumann-Heink (Alto)
Conductor:  Rosario Bourdon
Period: Romantic 
Written: 1898; Germany 
Date of Recording: 1927 
Language: German 

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