St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra

Biography

Active: 1882 - ; St. Petersburg, Russia
The orchestra Lenin's henchmen renamed the Leningrad Philharmonic in 1921 (until 1991, when it once more became the St. Petersburg Philharmonic) was originally founded in 1882 as the Winter Capital's Imperial Orchestra. During the 1917 October Revolution it became a state orchestra by decree, only to be absorbed a year later by the upstart Petrograd Philharmonic, conducted by Sergey Koussevitzky from Moscow. The newly proletarian Philharmonic, Read more though, continued playing in the Large Hall built as a Boyars' Assembly in 1830, which the orchestra still calls home. When Koussevitzky left in 1920 -- for Paris first, then Boston (1924 - 1949) -- Emil Cooper followed for three seasons. But he, too, left the U.S.S.R., to conduct at the pre-Depression, Insull-funded Chicago Civic Opera, and later at the New York Metropolitan (1944 - 1950).

Interim guest conductors included the Russo-British Albert Coates and Poland's Grzegorz Fitelberg, until in 1926 Nikolai Malko transferred from the Mariinsky (formerly Imperial) Opera to the Philharmonic as music director. Before he departed in 1929 (for Copenhagen, then Chicago, finally settling in Sydney, Australia), Malko premiered the first three symphonies by Shostakovich. Next, Aleksandr Gauk commuted from Moscow until Fritz Stiedry fled eastward in 1933 from Nazi Germany. However, because of Stalin's escalating purges, he resigned his directorship in 1937 (to conduct the New Friends of Music Orchestra in New York City, and later on the Met Opera's Wagner repertory). Stiedry introduced Shostakovich as piano soloist in his first concerto, and prepared the Fourth Symphony in 1936, only to have the terrified composer withdraw it after Stalin denounced his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District. Stiedry's legendary successor was 35-year-old Yevgeny Mravinsky, a pupil of Malko and Gauk, who came from the Kirov Opera and Ballet (the Mariinsky renamed). Having won an All-Union Conductors' Competition, he was appointed music director of the Philharmonic in 1938. But already they had premiered (and recorded) Shostakovich's Fifth Symphony in November 1937, and during the next 24 years introduced Nos. 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. With Mravinsky the orchestra also premiered Shostakovich's first concertos for violin and cello, and in 1947 Sergey Prokofiev's war-scarred Sixth Symphony.

Before cardiac illness in 1987 forced Mravinsky's retirement after 49 years as music director, he made Leningrad's orchestra the best as well as oldest in the U.S.S.R. Its tonal transparency and power were inimitable, with virtuosic strings (even at Le Mans speeds), French-sounding horns and trombones, and woodland reeds. But not until their first transatlantic tour in 1960 did the West hear the richness of sound, range of dynamics, and singleness of purpose matched only by the Amsterdam, Vienna Philharmonic and Chicago Symphony Orchestras. Mravinsky's distinguished associates included Kurt Sanderling (1941 - 1960), Arvids Jansons (1948 - 1961), and the latter's son Mariss (associate in 1973, later principal conductor in 1985, a post he still holds under Mravinsky's successor, Yuri Temirkanov). Between father Jansons and son Jansons, Mravinsky was notably aided by Eduard Serov and Igor Blazhkov.

The Leningrad Philharmonic's repertory was both wide and catholic, ranging from Bach through Stravinsky's Agon, although Russian music from Glinka onward was considered their special province. Mravinsky stopped making studio recordings in 1961 -- a total of 54 -- but 48 more were taped during concerts. To the end, audiences marveled at the swiftness of his interpretations, controversially so in the Tchaikovsky symphonies. Under the more easygoing, at times laid-back Temirkanov, the orchestra forfeited a measure of its former lung power and luster, especially after the chaotic national transition of 1991. Read less

There are 71 St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra recordings available.

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Biography

Active: 1882 - ; St. Petersburg, Russia
The orchestra Lenin's henchmen renamed the Leningrad Philharmonic in 1921 (until 1991, when it once more became the St. Petersburg Philharmonic) was originally founded in 1882 as the Winter Capital's Imperial Orchestra. During the 1917 October Revolution it became a state orchestra by decree, only to be absorbed a year later by the upstart Petrograd Philharmonic, conducted by Sergey Koussevitzky from Moscow. The newly proletarian Philharmonic, Read more
WORKS ALBUMS
TITLE/COMPOSER
LABEL
1. Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso - Allegro con spirito
2. Andantino semplice - Prestissimo - Tempo I
3. Allegro con fuoco
1. Allegro maestoso
2. Romance (Larghetto)
3. Rondo (Vivace)
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 1. Allegro ma non tanto
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 2. Intermezzo (Adagio)
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 3. Finale (Alla breve)
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 1. Allegro ma non tanto
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 2. Intermezzo (Adagio)
Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.3 In D Minor, Op.30 - 3. Finale (Alla breve)
Stravinsky: Symphony No.1 in E flat, Op.1 - 1. Allegro moderato
Stravinsky: Symphony No.1 in E flat, Op.1 - 2. Scherzo: Allegretto
Stravinsky: Symphony No.1 in E flat, Op.1 - 3. Largo
Stravinsky: Symphony No.1 in E flat, Op.1 - 4. Finale: Allegro molto
1. Pezzo in forma di sonatina: Andante non troppo - Allegro moderato
2. Walzer: Moderato (Tempo di valse)
3. Elégie: Larghetto elegiaco
4. Finale (Tema russo): Andante - Allegro con spirito
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: I. Grave - Allegro ma non troppo
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: I. Grave - Allegro ma non troppo
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: II. Allegro animato
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: II. Allegro animato
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: III. Larghetto
Symphony No. 1 in D Minor, Op.13: III. Larghetto
Symphony No. 1 in D minor, Op. 13: Fourth movement: Allegro con fuoco
Symphony No. 1 in D minor, Op. 13: Fourth movement: Allegro con fuoco
The Isle of the Dead, Op.29
The Isle of the Dead, Op.29
Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op.44: I. Lento - Allegro moderato - Allegro
Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op.44: I. Lento - Allegro moderato - Allegro
Rachmaninoff: Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op. 44: II. Adagio ma non troppo - Allegro vivace
Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op. 44: II. Adagio ma non troppo - Allegro vivace
Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op.44: III. Allegro - Allegro vivace
Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op.44: III. Allegro - Allegro vivace
Symphonic Dances Op. 45: I. Non allegro
Symphonic Dances Op. 45: I. Non allegro
Symphonic Dances, Op.45: II. Andante con moto (Tempo di valse)
Symphonic Dances, Op.45: II. Andante con moto (Tempo di valse)
Symphonic Dances, Op.45: III. Lento assai - Allegro vivace
Symphonic Dances, Op.45: III. Lento assai - Allegro vivace
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 1. Allegretto
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 2. Moderato (poco allegretto)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 3. Adagio
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 4. Allegro non troppo
Shostakovich: Symphony No.11 in G minor, Op.103 "The Year of 1905" - 1. The Palace Square (Adagio)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.11 in G minor, Op.103 "The Year of 1905" - 2. Ninth of January (Allegro - Adagio)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.11 in G minor, Op.103 "The Year of 1905" - 3. Eternal Memory (Adagio)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.11 in G minor, Op.103 "The Year of 1905" - 4. Alarm (Allegro non troppo - Adagio - Allegro)
I. Babi Yar (Adagio)
II. Yumor (Allegretto)
III. V magazine (Adagio)
IV. Strakhi (Largo)
V. Karera (Allegretto)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 1. Allegretto
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 2. Moderato (poco allegretto)
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 3. Adagio
Shostakovich: Symphony No.7, Op.60 - "Leningrad" - 4. Allegro non troppo
Andante; Allegro con anima
Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza
Valse: Allegro moderato
Finale: Andante maestoso; Allegro vivace
Symphony No. 2 in E minor Op. 27: I. Largo
Symphony No. 2 in E minor Op. 27: Allegro moderato
Symphony No. 2 in E minor Op. 27: II. Scherzo (Allegro molto)
Symphony No. 2 in E minor Op. 27: III. Adagio
Symphony No. 2 in E minor Op. 27: IV. Allegro vivace
Allegro con brio
Larghetto
Gavotte
Finale
Lieutenant Kijé: Symphonic Suite, Op. 60: The Birth of Kijé
Romance
The Wedding of Kijé
Troika
The Burial of Kijé
Symphony No. 5, Op. 100 in B-Flat: Andante
Allegro marcato
Adagio
Allegro giocoso
Prelude (From Alexander Nevsky)
The 13th Century (From Alexander Nevsky)
Plescheyevo Lake (Song about Alexander Nevsky) (From Alexander Nevsky)
Pskov in Flames (From Alexander Nevsky)
Death to the Blasphemer! (Peregrinus expectavi) (From Alexander Nevsky)
Arise, People of Russia (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Teutonic Camp (Peregrinus expectavi) (From Alexander Nevsky)
Nevsky's Camp: Night before the Battle (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: April 5, 1242 (Peregrinus expectavi) (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: Fight for Russia! (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: Spears and Arrows (Peregrinus expectavi) (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: The Duel with the Grand Master (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: The Battle is Won (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Battle on the Ice: The Ice Breaks (From Alexander Nevsky)
The Field of the Dead (From Alexander Nevsky)
Pskov: Procession of the Fallen and Judgement of the Prisoners (From Alexander Nevsky)
And now let's celebrate! (From Alexander Nevsky)
Final Chorus (From Alexander Nevsky)
Symphony No. 3 in A minor Op. 44: I. Lento - Allegro moderato - Allegro
Symphony No. 3 in A minor Op. 44: II. Adagio ma non troppo - Allegro vivace - Tempo come prima
Symphony No. 3 in A minor Op. 44: III. Allegro - Allegro vivace
Symphonic Dances Op. 45: I. Non allegro
Symphonic Dances Op. 45: II. Andante con moto (Tempo di valse)
Symphonic Dances Op. 45: III. Lento assai - Allegro vivace
Allegro con brio
Larghetto
Gavotte
Finale
Romeo and Juliet, Suite No. 2: Montagues and Capulets
The Child Juliet
Friar Laurence
Dance
Romeo at Juliet's before Parting
Dance of the Antilles Girls
Romeo at the Grave of Juliet
The Love for Three Oranges: Ridiculous Fellows
Magician Celio and Fata Morgana Play Cards
March
Scherzo
The Prince and the Princess
Flight
Concerto No. 3: I. Allegro ma non tanto
Concerto No. 3: II. Intermezzo: Adagio
Concerto No. 3: III. Finale: Alla breve
Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, Op.30: I. Allegro ma non tanto
Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, Op.30: II. Intermezzo (Adagio) -
Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, Op.30: III. Finale (Alla breve)
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Introduction - Allegro vivace
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation I - Precedente
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Tema - L'istessa tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation II - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation III - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation IV - piu vivo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation V - Tempo precedente
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation VI - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation VII - Meno mosso, a tempo moderato
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation VIII - Tempo I
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation IX - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation X
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XI - Moderato
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XII - Tempo di Minuetto
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XIII - Allegro
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XIV - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XV - Piu vivo. Scherzando
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XVI - Allegretto
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XVII
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XVIII - Andante cantabile
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XIX - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XX - Un poco piu vivo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XXI - Un poco piu vivo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XXII - Un poco piu vivo - alla breve
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XXIII - L'istesso tempo
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini: Variation XXIV - A tempo un poco meno mosso
Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Minor, Op.40: I. Allegro vivace (Alla breve)
Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Minor, Op.40: II. Largo
Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Minor, Op.40: III. Allegro vivace (revised version)
Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Minor, Op.40: III. Allegro vivace (original version)
Piano Concerto No. 1 in F Sharp Minor, Op.1: I. Vivace
Piano Concerto No. 1 in F Sharp Minor, Op.1: II. Andante
Piano Concerto No. 1 in F Sharp Minor, Op.1: III. Allegro vivace
Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Minor, Op.18: I. Moderato
Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Minor, Op.18: II. Adagio sostenuto
Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Minor, Op.18: III. Allegro scherzando
When the War Was Over (I)
The Call Rings Throughout the Land (II)
Memory of the Past (III)
The Pioneers Plant the Forests (IV)
The Fighters of Stalingrad Forge Onward (V)
A Walk into the Future (VI)
Glory (VII)
On Guard for Peace, Op. 124: Scarce had Earth recovered from the Thunder of War (I)
To Those Who are Ten Years Old (II)
Stalingrad, City of Glory (III)
Let Unshakeable Peace on Earth be the Heroes' Reward (IV)
We Do Not Want War (V)
Dove of Peace (VI)
Lullaby (VII)
At the Peace Celebration (VIII)
Conversation in the Ether (IX)
The Whole World is Poised to Wage War on War (X)
I. Allegretto
II. Moderato (poco allegretto)
III. Adagio
IV. Allegro non troppo
Largo; Allegro moderato
Allegro molto
Adagio
Allegro vivace
Songs, Op. 34: Vocalise, No. 14


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