Einojuhani Rautavaara

Biography

Born: Oct 9, 1928; Finland   Period: 20th Century
Einojuhani Rautavaara is the best-known composer in contemporary Finnish music. He began to study at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki in the late1940s, but his professional career didn't begin until 1954 when his orchestral A Requiem in Our Time won a competition sponsored by Thor Johnson, then conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. That same year Rautavaara entered an advanced course in music composition with Aarre Merikanto and Read more attracted the attention of Sibelius himself, who in 1955 recommended that Rautavaara be awarded a Tanglewood scholarship to study at the Julliard School for one year. In the United States Rautavaara studied with Aaron Copland and Roger Sessions, and once back in Europe, he completed his course of study in Switzerland with Wladimir Vogel and in Cologne with Rudolf Petzold.
Rautavaara, paraphrasing a statement usually made in reference to American politics, has said "If an artist is not a modernist when he is young, he has no heart. And if he is a modernist when he is old, he has no brain." Indeed, Rautavaara's style is rooted in modernism, and his earliest works are in a Nordic folk-derived idiom reminiscent of Bartók. Not surprisingly his approach shifted more strongly towards serialism after his experiences in Cologne. The political subject matter and often thorny 12-tone writing in Rautavaara's first opera, Kaivos (The Mine) led the Finnish National Opera to reject the work, but in a revised form Kaivos was aired on national Finnish television in 1963. This helped to establish Rautavaara's reputation in his home country.
By 1970 Rautavaara began to lose interest in the rigorous requirements of serialism. With his next major work, the opera Apollo contra Marsyas, Rautavaara opted for a poly-stylistic approach, utilizing jazz and popular music in an ironic juxtaposition against light Viennese classical music. This breakthrough led to the development of Rautavaara's mature style, in which the music is subservient to the demands of his programmatic concepts, whether political, environmental, social or spiritual. While Rautavaara's prestige gained ground in Europe throughout the seventies and eighties, it was his Symphony No. 7 "Angel of Light" (1994) that established his international reputation. This appealing and meditative work came as a surprise to many who felt that contemporary composers had grown hopelessly out of touch with the emotional needs of the public.
Rautavaara is a prolific composer with a career spanning seven decades. So far he has created ten operas, of which Thomas (1982-1985), Vincent (1986-1987) and Aleksis Kivi (1995-1996) are the best known. He has also produced eight symphonies and many concertos including the popular Cantus Arcticus; concerto for birds & orchestra (1972) and the double bass concerto Angel of Dusk (1980). Rautavaara has also written reams of choral, chamber and vocal music and a small amount of electronic music. Through working directly from his emotions and not hewing to party line serialism, Einojuhani Rautavaara has emerged, in the autumn of his life, as one the major figures in contemporary music worldwide. Read less

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Works

Einojuhani Rautavaara


MOST POPULAR WORKS
I. Fragmentos de agonia (Fragments of Agony)
II. Meditacion primera y ultima (First and Last Meditation)
III. Ciudad sin sueno (Sleepless City)
I. The Bog
II. Melancholy
III. Swans Migrating
Communion Hymn No. 1
Communion Hymn No. 2
Kyrie
Herdepsalm (Shepherd Psalm)
I. Andantino
II. Vivace
III. Andante moderato
IV. Allegro
I. Con grandezza
II. Andante
III. Molto vivace
I. In Viaggio
II. Sognando e libero
III. Uccelli sulle passioni
I. Tranquillo
II. Adagio assai
III. Energico
I. Tranquillo
II. Energico
I. Narbolaisten braa speli (The Narbo Villagers in Fine Fettle)
II. Kospin Jonas
III. Klockar Samuel Dikstrom (Bell-Ringer Samuel Dikstrom)
IV. Pirun polska (Devil's Schottische)
V. Hypyt (Jumps)
I. Langsom, breit, ruhig
II. Langsam, doch nich schleppend
III. Sehr schnell
IV. Bewegt
I. Tranquillo
II. Molto allegro
III. Come un sogno
IV. Pesante-cantabile
I. Adagio assai
II. Feroce
III. Tranquillo
IV. Con grandezza
WORKS
Hymnus
Credo et dupito
Dies irae
Lacrymosa
The Lord of Battles (Kyrie)
Have Mercy on Us (Miserere)
On the Field of Glory (Gloria)
In the Moment of Death (In hora mortis)
Prologue: Introduction
Prologue: Mi ikavyys mi hamaryys sieluni ympar, "Ikavyys" (Melancholy) (Kivi)
Prologue: Sina! Ei kai nyt sentaan enaa ... (Kivi)
Prologue: Arvoisat kuulijat, kunnioitettu auditorium! (Ahlqvist)
Act I: Ahlqvist astuu sivulle kateerderiinsa (Ahlqvist, Charlotta, Hilda, Alexis)
Act I: Makeasti oravainen makaa sammalhouneessansa, "Laulu oravast" (Song about the Squirrel) (Alexis)
Act I: Voi mitten kaunista se olikaan! (Charlotta, Hilda, Alexis)
Act I: Nyt hurratkaamme huikeasti huutaen: hurraa! (Junki, Siivo, Kristo, Krasse, Olvi, Alexis, Kuku, Old Pagan)
Act I: No niin, mina voisin onnitellakin ylioppilas Stenvallia (Ahlqvist, Alexis, Charlotta, Hilda)
Act I: Siis taytyyko niin olla? Taytyyko oravaisen lopultakin yksin jaada? (Hilda, Alexis, Charlotta)
Act I: Niinko siis on - ja lahden minakin? (Alexis)
Act I: Niin, Alexis, ehka kuitenkin on paras meidan nyt hyvastella - niin, meidankin (Charlotta, Alexis)
Act I: Eron hetki on kalveakasvo unien tyhjassa valtakunnassa ... (Charlotta)
Act III: Kuka se on? (Kivi, Devil-Ahlqvist)
Act III: Nyt niinkuin aamun koitto otsansa loistelee (Chorus, Kivi)
Act III: Kay sisaan vaan, sa Suomen runotarkin! (Ahlqvist, Public, Runeberg)
Act III: Knaakka (Ahlqvist, Runeberg, Public)
Act III: Epilogue: Voi en loyda kotiani ... en loyda ... kotiani ... (Kivi, Alexis, Charlotta)
Act III: Epilogue: Rauhallisesti! Rauhallisesti vain (Doctor-Ahlqvist, Charlotta, Kivi)
Act III: Epilogue: Tuonen lehto, oinen lehto!, "Sydameni laulu" (Song of My Heart) (Kivi)
I. His First Appearance
II. His Monologue
III. His Last Appearance
I. Poetico
II. Tranquillo
III. Giocoso e leggiero
I. A Tale of Night
II. A Tale of Fire
III. A Tale of Love
IV. A Tale of Fate
I. Fragmentos de agonia (Fragments of Agony)
II. Meditacion primera y ultima (First and Last Meditation)
III. Ciudad sin sueno (Sleepless City)
I. The Bog
II. Melancholy
III. Swans Migrating
Kyrie
Meditatio super Kyrie
Gloria
Meditatio super Gloriam
Agnus Dei
Meditatio super Agnum
Halleluja
Communion Hymn No. 1
Communion Hymn No. 2
Kyrie
Herdepsalm (Shepherd Psalm)
I. Drammatico ma flessibile
II. Adagio assai
III. Vivace
I. Andantino
II. Vivace
III. Andante moderato
IV. Allegro
I. Pesante
II. Adagietto
III. Solenne
I. Con grandezza
II. Andante
III. Molto vivace
I. In Viaggio
II. Sognando e libero
III. Uccelli sulle passioni
I. Tranquillo
II. Adagio assai
III. Energico
I. Tranquillo
II. Energico
I. Liebes-Lied (Love Song)
II. Der Schauende
III. Die Liebende ( The Woman in Love)
IV. Der Tod der Geliebten (Death of the Lover)
I. Allegro
II. Adagio
III. Allegretto ma energico
Terssit (Thirds)
Septimit (Sevenths)
Tritonukset (Tritones)
Kvartit (Fourths)
Sekunnit (Seconds)
Kvinitt (Fifths)
I. Narbolaisten braa speli (The Narbo Villagers in Fine Fettle)
II. Kospin Jonas
III. Klockar Samuel Dikstrom (Bell-Ringer Samuel Dikstrom)
IV. Pirun polska (Devil's Schottische)
V. Hypyt (Jumps)
I.
II. Barnet (The Child)
III. Pingst (Penecost)
IV. Drom i katedralen (Dream in the Cathedral)
I. I de stora skogarna (In the Great Wild Woodlands)
II. Mellan graa stenar (In between Grey Stones)
III. Lyckoskatt (Lucky Cat)
Jumalanaidin kuolema (The Death of the Mother of God)
Kaksi maalaipyhimysta (Two Village Saints)
Blakernajan musta Jumalanaiti (The Black Madonna of Blakernaya)
Kristuksen kaste (The Baptism of Christ)
Pyhat naiset haudalla (The Holy Women at the Sepulchre)
Arkkienkeli Mikael kukistaa Antikristuksen (Archangel Michael Defeats the Antichrist)
Act I: Yksi, kaksi, kolme, nelja (Miners, Marko, Vanha)
Act I: Kaivos! Yksi on enaa sanottava (Commissar)
Act I: Kansan isa, kirottu olkoon sinun nimesi (Marko, Miners, Priest)
Act I: Simon! Simon! Siina meille Gabriel! (Marko, Vanha, Simon)
Act I: Tulit huonoon aikaan (Preist, Simon, Ira)
Act I: Kuuletko mita he minulta haluavat (Simon, Ira)
Act II: Huomio kaksi, taalla viisi (Marko, Women)
Act II: ...ja kuka tarttuu minuun (Ira)
Act II: Jos liikut, synnytat liikkeen (Commissar, Priest, Ira, Simon)
Act II: Oletko sina sokea? (Commissar)
Act II: No niin, koska niin pidat leikeista (Simon, Ira)
Act II: Mita aiot tehda nyt, Simon? (Priest, Vanha, Simon)
Act II: Kenties, kenties on tama joukko se siemen (Priest, Simon, Radio, Ira, Women)
Act III: Neitsyt, neitsyt, neitsyt! (Miners, Women, Priest)
Act III: Naetko...uneksitko koskaan (Marko, Ira)
Act III: Han kuolee pian (Ira, Simon, Miners)
Act III: Luleli laleli lileli (Miner, Men, Marko, Priest, Vanha)
Act III: Pois ulos kaivos (Women, Men, Simon, Miner, Ira)
Act III: Minne se johtaa? (Priest)
Act III: Ira, meidan taytyy menna! (Simon, Echo)
Act III: Sor amabilissima, Ave! (Soprano voice)
I. Mista on pienet pojat tehty
II. Hus sika metsaan
III. Peukaloputti sian sai
I. Personalia
II. Temporalia
III. Qualitativa
IV. Quantitativa
I. Tulen (I Approach Thee)
II. Viatonten valssi (Waltz of the Innocents)
III. October
Magnificat
Quia respexit - Misericordia
Fecit potentiam
Suscepit Israel
Gloria
I. Daydreams
II. Nightmares
III. Dawn
I. Kuljin matkan aamupuolella yota (I Took That Trip towards an Early Daybreak)
II. Mita on silmaluomiesi takaa syntymassa (What is There Arising from behind Your Eyelids)
III. Kuljen yli kevatlumisien puistikoiden (I am Walking over Tiny Spots of Snow)
IV. Yo on syva (Deep Is The Night)
Kyrie
Sanctus
Agnus Dei
Notturno
Danza
I. Allegro molto
II. Largo
III. Prestissimo
1. --
2. --
3. --
No. 1. The Hotel
No. 2. Kaufladen (Shopping)
No. 3. Beim Schneider (At the Tailor)
No. 4. Gesellschaften (At a Party)
1. Kimmoisasti vasaroiden (Elastically Hammering)
2. Kyllin hitaasti (Slowly Enough)
3. Hermostuneesti mutta rytmissa (Nervously But in Rhythm)
4. Koraali ja muunnelma (Chorale and Variation)
5. Fugato
6. Varisten (Shivering)
7. Alla finale
Psalm 23
Psalm 130
I. Suuri pitkaperjantai (The Great Good Friday)
II. Iltarukous (Evening Prayer)
III. Kynttilanpaiva (Candlemas)
IV. Joulun virsi - elaman virsi (Hymn of Christmas - Hymn of Life)
I. Presto
II. Andante
III. Vivace assai (alla giga)
I. Moderato
II. Allegro
III. Adagio
IV. Animato
I. -
II. -
III. -
I. -
II. -
III. -
IV. -
No. 1. Serenade fur meine Frau (Serenade to My Wife)
No. 2. La mort des pauvres (Serenade to Death)
No. 3. Serenadien serenadi (Serenade of Serenades)
No. 4. Serenadi oluelle (Serenade to Beer)
I. --
II. Attacca
III. --
I. Motlo allegretto
II. Andante assai
III. Allegro brutale
No. 1. Ikavyys (Melancholy)
No. 2. Olven kunnia (The Glory of Beer)
No. 3. Oravan laulu (The Squirrel)
No. 4. Sydameni laulu (Song of My Heart)
I. That time of year
II. When I do count the clock
III. Shall I compare thee
I. Da stieg ein Baum (A Tree Rose There)
II. Und fast ein Madchen wars (And It Was Almost a Girl)
III. Ein Gott vermags (A God Can Achieve It)
IV. O ihr Zartlichen ( O Ye Gentle Ones)
V. Errichtet keinen Denkstein ( Don't Put Up a Memorial)
I. Presto
II. Andante
III. Vivace assai (Alla giga)
I. Quasi grave
II. Vivace
III. Largo
IV. Presto
I. Langsom, breit, ruhig
II. Langsam, doch nich schleppend
III. Sehr schnell
IV. Bewegt
II. Melancholy
III. Swans Migrating
I. -
II. -
III. -
IV. -
Symphony No. 5
I. Starry Night
II. The Crows
III. Saint-Remy
IV. Apotheosis
I. Tranquillo
II. Molto allegro
III. Come un sogno
IV. Pesante-cantabile
I. Adagio assai
II. Feroce
III. Tranquillo
IV. Con grandezza
Overture
Act I: Rotta! Rotta! (Noora, Riina)
Act I: Milloin tama paattyy, milloin maailma on kyllin tyhja meille (Noora, Riina)
Act I: John! Victor! (Victoria, John, Eleanor, Irene, Victor)
Act I: Minulla on kunnia ilmoittaa etta herra John on ampunut ... (Gregor, Eleanor, Irene, Victoria)
Act I: Rina! Ovella on joku! (Noora, Riina)
Act I: Se on postimies, Hermesson, Postimies (Riina, Noora, Hermesson)
Act I: Kenties saapuu, kenties kuitenkin, jos toivoo (Noora, Riina)
Act II: On aika - on aika lahtea, on aika vihdoin tietaa (Eleanor, Irene, Noora, Riina)
Act II: Minulia on kunnia ilmoittaa tilanomistaja John von Sonnig! (Gregor, Rekku, Dancers)
I. Before the Arras: The Unicorn questions the nature of the chase
I. Before the Arras: The Lion, reading
I. Before the Arras: Sigmund of Vienna
I. Before the Arras: The Unicorn
II. Horn and Hounds: Entering the wilderness the Unicorn is beset by voices
II. Horn and Hounds: Young Sagittarius
II. Horn and Hounds: A Virgin, waiting
II. Horn and Hounds: The Empress of Byzantium
II. Horn and Hounds: Queen Victoria
II. Horn and Hounds: His Honor the Mayor
II. Horn and Hounds: Big Black Sambo
III. Snare and Delusion: In the heart of the desert the silence is pearcing
III. Snare and Delusion: The Unicorn, wounded
IV. Mon Seul Desir: The Unicorn reaches a temple in a clearing
IV. Mon Seul Desir: Sigmund of Vienna
IV. Mon Seul Desir: The Lion
IV. Mon Seul Desir: The Unicorn
IV. Mon Seul Desir: Tom Fool
IV. Mon Seul Desir: The Virgin's Lullaby
IV. Mon Seul Desir: The Unicorn
Vespers: -
Vespers: Psalm 103
Vespers: Katisma No. 1
Vespers: Psalm of Invocation
Vespers: Sticheron of Invocation
Vespers: Sticheron to the Mother of God
Vespers: Evening Hymn
Vespers: Ekteniya
Vespers: Sticheron of the Litany
Vespers: Ekteniya of the Litany
Vespers: Sticheron
Vespers: Troparion
Vespers: Troparion of the Feast
Vespers: Final Blessing
Matins: -
Matins: Troparion
Matins: Troparion No. 2
Matins: Hymn of Praise
Matins: Troparion of the Resurrection
Matins: Antiphon
Matins: Prokeimenon
Matins: Hymn of Resurrection
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 1
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 3
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 4
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 5
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 6
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 7
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 8
Matins: Katabasis: Hymn of Thanksgiving of the Mother of God
Matins: Canon: Irmos No. 9
Matins: Sticheron of Thanksgiving
Matins: Troparion of the Resurrection
Matins: Final Blessing
Act I: Orchestral Prelude: Tahtiyo
Act I: Todellisen yliluonnollisen yli kaiken luonnollisen toden (Chorus, Doctor, Secretary, Chaplain, Chief Warder)
Act I: Kuuntele, ! Kuuntele, ! (Gaby, Rachel, Magdalena, , The Twelve)
Act I: Valo ei ollut sallittu, mutta aina on alettava pimeasta (, Theo)
Act I: Ma outo oon ja vieras aivan, muukalainen valissa maan ja taivaan (Chorus, Theo, , Maria Hoornik)
Act I: Nyt tama skandaali saa lappua! (Foreman, Clerk, Chief of Police, Theo, Chief Preacher, , Maria Hoornik, Chorus)
Act I: Niinhan sina menet, lahdet, ja tuskin itse tiedat sen tien (Theo, Gaby)
Act III: Orchestral Prelude: Auvers'in kirkko
Act III: Todellisen yliluonnollisen yli kaiken luonnollisen taden (Chorus, , Doctor Rey, Chief Warder, Secretary, Chaplain)
Act II: Niin on siis teidan lyotava ... (, Chorus)
I. Freude steigt in uns auf
II. Meine Liebe
III. Dann, in jener Nacht
IV. Der Brief
V. Flustern


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